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FOUNTAIN UNIVERSITY, OSOGBO (THE UNIVERSITY OF NASRUL-LAHI-IL-FATHI SOCIETY OF NIGERIA) Course code: CHM 203 Course title: Surface Chemistry and Electrochemistry. Time: Tue. 11: 00 am – 1: 30pm. Venue: Chemistry Lab. (Old) Instructor: Abdulsalami I.O Office: Rm. 002, Biological Science Complex. Phone: +234-8054-284-452 e-mail: [email protected] Instruction: It is your responsibility to be aware of all announcements that may be made in class during this semester. If warranted by circumstances, the instructor may modify course policies during the semester. Cell Phones Cell phones must be turned off during class. Textbooks: P. Atkins and J. De Paula: Atkins’ Physical Chemistry. 8th Edition, (Oxford Press, Ney York. 2006) Bruno Linder: Thermodynamics and introductory statistical mechanics, (John Wiley & Sons Inc., New Jersey. 2004) J.R.W. Warn and A.P.H. Peters: Concise chemical thermodynamics. 2nd Edition (Nelson Thornes. 1996) The lecture will highlight the essential information in the textbook. It will provide additional material where necessary, and focus on conceptual understanding and problem solving. Lecture notes will be made available for your convenience, but they are no substitute for regular class attendance. Note: Errors in the lecture notes, the textbook, or in the ancillary material are no excuse for mistakes on a test or the final. Calculator: You need a simple “scientific” calculator for this class. Palm-size, laptop or other portable computing devices are not permitted during tests or the examination. If the screen of your device is larger than 6 square inches or if the device has a (mini-) typewriter keyboard, the calculator will not be allowed. Sharing of calculators during tests or the examination is not permitted. Attendance: class attendance is expected, and the attendance is an integral part of the continuous assessment. Tests & Examination: There will be three or more tests (announced/ unannounced) and an examination. All tests and the examination are closed book and no notes. You are allowed to use pen or pencil, eraser, and calculator (see above). Everything else, including cell phones which must be turned off, must be placed under the seat. Caps or sunglasses may not be worn during the tests and the examination. The female students are advised to use face fitted (and not loosed) head covers (hijab). The tests will be 1hour 25 minutes long and will be on the following Mondays during regular class hours: Test 1 Tuesday, November 26th, 2013 Test 2 Tuesday, December 19th, 2013 Test 3 Tuesday, January 28th, 2014 The instructor may change the any of these dates, and the students will be duly communicated, if any of these dates conflict with University programme(s). There will be no make-up tests. You must take all tests and the examination, unless you have a verifiable, legitimate reason for missing a test, e.g., a doctor’s note. Otherwise, your score for the missed test or examination will be a zero. If you cannot take a test, you must contact the instructor as soon as possible. If you miss a test for legitimate reasons, your grade for the missed test will be calculated by averaging the grade on the final and the grades on the tests you took. The examination will be in June, and the date, time and venue will be as stated on the school timetable. The students are to make complete payment of school fees and other fees and obtain their eligibility card, as this will serve as the ticket for admission into the examination hall. Policies 1. Excused Absences for University Extracurricular Activities: Students participating in an officially sanctioned, scheduled University extracurricular activity will be given the opportunity to make up class assignments or other graded assignments missed as a result of their participation. It is the responsibility of the student to make arrangements with the instructor prior to any missed scheduled examination or other missed assignment for making up the work. 2. Policy on Academic Dishonesty: All work undertaken and submitted in this course is governed by the University’s Honor Code. Students who violate University rules on academic dishonesty (the FUO Honor Code) are subject to disciplinary penalties, including the possibility of failure in the course and/or dismissal from the University. Since such dishonesty harms the individual, all students, and the integrity of the University, policies on academic dishonesty will be strictly enforced. You agree to abide by the FUO Honor Code, though there may not be a specific pledge on a test or examination. CHM 203: Physical Chemistry Key Concepts and Objectives Aim: the aim of this course is to introduce the University entrants into Colleges of Natural and Applied Sciences to the various branches of chemistry and stresses the areas of inorganic, physical and radiochemistry. Objectives: Below are the topics (with brief synopsis) we intend to treat in the form of the objectives of CHM 203: physical chemistry. Kinetic theory of gases: tenets of the kinetic theory of gases; temperature and kinetic energy of gas molecule; molecular theory of kinetic energy using the gas laws. Laws of thermodynamics: concepts of reversibility and entropy; zeroth, first, second and third laws of thermodynamics; relationships between Cp and Cv ; Gibbs energy; Phase equilibria: chemical equilibrium; activity of materials in solution; phase behaviour in twocomponent systems: liquid-liquid system, solid-liquid system, vapour-liquid equilibrium (Raoult’s law). Debye-Huckel’s theory: Debye-Huckel’s theory of ionic solution; Debye relaxation time. Chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms: rates of reactions; dependence of rates on concentration; first-order; second-order; zero-order; nth-order reactions; effect of temperature; kinetics of more complex systems Electrochemistry and electrochemical cells: electrochemical cells; standard electrode potential; variation of cell electromotive cells with activity and with temperature. Acid-base concept: pH hydrolysis and buffer solutions. Problem Solving Strategy (adapted from G. Polya, “How To Solve It”, 2nd ed., Princeton UP, Princeton 1973) • Read the problem. • Read the problem again. • Understanding the problem – Identify the actual problem. – What is the area of the problem (e.g., molecular motion)? – What is (are) the unknown(s)? (Make a list if more than one) – What are the data? List them. – What are the conditions? • Devising a plan – Introduce suitable notation. (Draw a picture.) – Have you seen the problem before? – Do you know a similar problem, a related problem having the same unknown(s)? – Look at the unknowns and list all equations, relations, theorems, etc., that you know and that have to do with the unknowns. (Carefully state all the limitations of the equations, e.g., only for ideal gas.) – Could you solve a simpler problem, a more special problem, a more general problem, part of the problem? – Could you restate the problem? – Could you work backwards from the unknowns to the data? – Did you use all the data? – Are there too many data, not enough data? – Did you take into account all special conditions? • Carrying out the plan – Check each step (e.g., dimensional analysis). – Can you see clearly that the step is correct? • Checking the solution – Does the result make sense (correct units, correct sign, order-of-magnitude of the numerical value is reasonable)? – Can you check the result, e.g., can you derive it differently? – Can you check some (easy) special cases? Practice questions. 1. (a) If the kinetic theory of gases is treated quantitatively, one can derive an ideal gas law. Consider a gaseous particle of mass, m, moving within a confined cubic box of side L, at velocity, Vo. Show that the kinetic energy of the gas molecule, Ek 1 𝐸𝑘 = 𝑚𝑐 2 (Where, 𝑐 2 = 𝑉𝑥2 + 𝑉𝑦2 + 𝑉𝑧2 ) 2 (b) Briefly define the following terms as used in thermodynamics (i) A system (ii) Surroundings (iii) Open system (iv) Closed system (v) State functions (vi) Standard states (vii) Isolated system (c) Calculate the work done on the surroundings at 1 bar pressure and 298K, when 0.20 moles H2O2decomposes. If the standard enthalpy change, ∆Ho, of the reaction is -98.2kJ per mole of H2O2, what is the corresponding change in the internal energy of the system? (Volume occupied by 1 mole of a gas at 1 bar and 273K is 22.7 dm3) 2. (a) Deduce the following gas laws from the kinetic theory of gases (i) Boyle’s law. (ii) Charles’s law. (iii) Dalton’s law of partial pressure. (b) Briefly explain the following (c) (i) Debye-Huckel’s theory of ionic solution. (ii) Debye relaxation time. (i) Consider the expansion of a gas against a frictionless piston upon which an external pressure, P, is acting. Show that the work done by the system on the surrounding is -P∆V (ii) C4H10(g)+ 13 /2 O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 5H2O(l) Calculate the volume of oxygen required for the complete combustion of 14.9 liter of butane. 3. (a) Given that the chemical potential of a univalent cation, M+, be µ+ and that of a univalent anion, X- be µ-. Show that the total molar Gibb’s energy of a real solution. 𝐺𝑚 = 𝐺𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑎𝑙 + 𝑅𝑇𝑙𝑛Ɣ± (Where Ɣ± is the mean activity coefficient) (b) State at least five (5) tenets of the kinetic theory of gases. (c) (i) A gaseous substance that has chlorine and oxygen gases was synthesized. The density of the gas was found to be 7.71 g dm-3at 360C and 2.88 atm. pressure. Find the molar mass as well as the molecular formula of the compound. (ii) A compound has 78.14% boron and 21.86% hydrogen by mass. At 27 0C, 3mL of the gas has a pressure of 1.12 atm. Calculate the molar mass of the compound if its mass was 0.0934g. What is its molecular formula? More questions will be supplied during classes.