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The Ebionites
Today we want to introduce you to a certain heresy which spread up toward 90-140 after Christ.
The article is almost entorely extracted from Wikipedia.
The Ebionites (Greek: βιωναοι Ebionaioi from Hebrew; ‫ םינויבא‬Ebyonim, "the Poor Ones") were an
early Jewish Christian sect that lived in and around Judea and Palestine from the 1st to the 4th
To throw light on the views, practices and history of the Ebionites, modern scholars attempt to
reconstruct information from the available sources. Much of what is known about the Ebionites
derives from the Church Fathers, who wrote polemics against the Ebionites, whom they deemed
heretical Judaizers.[1][2] Some scholars agree with the substance of the traditional portrayal as an
offshoot of mainstream Christianity attempting to reestablish Jewish Law.[3][4] According to the
Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Ebionite movement may have arisen about the time of the destruction
of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem (AD 70).[5] Others have argued that the Ebionites were more
faithful to the authentic teachings of Jesus and constituted the mainstream of the Jerusalem church
before being gradually marginalized by the followers of Paul of Tarsus.[6][7][8][9][10][11]
In contrast to mainstream Christianity, the Ebionites insisted on a universal necessity of following
Jewish religious law and rites,[12] which they interpreted in light of Jesus' expounding of the Law.[13]
They regarded Jesus as a mortal human messianic prophet but not as divine, revered his brother
James as the head of the Jerusalem Church and rejected Paul of Tarsus as an "apostate of the
Law"[citation needed]. Their name suggests that they placed a special value on religious poverty.
Some scholars distinguish the Ebionites from other Jewish Christian groups, e.g. the Nazarenes,[14]
while others believe the two names refer to the same sect and that noted disagreements among
Jewish Christians do not correspond with these names.[15] Still others contend that the term was not
used to describe a single group at all, but rather denoted any group of Christians of that time who
sought to adhere both to Jesus and the Jewish law.[16][clarification needed]
The term Ebionites derives from the Hebrew Evyonim, meaning "the Poor Ones",[3][17] which has
parallels in the Psalms and the self-given term of pious Jewish circles.[4][18] The term "the poor" was
at first a common designation for all Christians - a reference to their material as well their religious
poverty.[3][19][20] Following schisms within the early Church, the graecized Hebrew term "Ebionite"
was applied exclusively to Jewish Christians separated from the developing Pauline Christianity,
and later in the fourth century a specific group of Jewish Christians or to a Jewish Christian sect
distinct from the Nazarenes. All the while, the designation "the Poor" in other languages was still
used in its original, more general sense.[3][4][21][22] Origen says "for Ebion signifies “poor” among the
Jews, and those Jews who have received Jesus as Christ are called by the name of Ebionites."[23][24]
Tertullian inaccurately derived the name from a fictional heresiarch called Ebion.[3][4]
The divergent application of "Ebionite" persists today, as some authors choose to label all Jewish
Christians, even before the mentioned schism, as Ebionites,[21][22] while others, though agreeing
about the historical events, use it in a more restricted sense.[7] Mainstream scholarship commonly
uses the term in the restricted sense.[3][4]
Without authenticated archaeological evidence, attempts to reconstruct their history have been
based on textual references, mainly the writings of the Church Fathers. The earliest reference to a
group that might fit the description of the Ebionites appears in Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho
(c. 140). Justin distinguishes between Jewish Christians who observe the Law of Moses but does
not require its observance upon others, and those who believe the Mosaic Law to be obligatory on
all.[25] Irenaeus (c. 180) was the first to use the term "Ebionites" to describe a heretical judaizing
sect, which he regarded as stubbornly clinging to the Law.[26] Origen (c. 212) remarks that the name
derives from the Hebrew word "evyon," meaning "poor."[27] Epiphanius of Salamis in the 4th
century gives the most complete but also questionable account in his heresiology called Panarion,
denouncing eighty heretical sects, among them the Ebionites.[28][29] Epiphanius mostly gives general
descriptions of their religious beliefs and includes quotations from their gospels, which have not
The actual number of groups described as Ebionites is difficult to ascertain, as the contradictory
patristic accounts in their attempt to distinguish various sects, sometimes confuse them with each
other.[4] Other groups mentioned are the Carpocratians, the Cerinthians, the Elcesaites, the
Nazarenes, the Nazoraeans, and the Sampsaeans, most of whom were Jewish Christian sects who
held gnostic or other views rejected by the Ebionites. Epiphanius, however, mentions that a group
of Ebionites came to embrace some of these views despite keeping their name.[30]
As the Ebionites are first mentioned as such in the 2nd century, their earlier history and their
relation to the first Jerusalem church remains obscure and a matter of contention. Many scholars
link the origin of the Ebionites with the First Jewish-Roman War. Prior to this, they are considered
to be part of the Jerusalem church led by the Apostle Peter and later by Jesus' brother James.
Eusebius relates a tradition, probably based on Aristo of Pella, that the early Christians left
Jerusalem just prior to the war and fled to Pella beyond the Jordan River.[4][3] They were led by
Simeon of Jerusalem (d. 107) and during the Second Jewish-Roman War, they were persecuted by
the Jewish followers of Bar Kochba for refusing to recognize his messianic claims.[30]
According to these scholars, it was beyond the Jordan, that the Nazarenes/Ebionites were first
recognized as a distinct group when some Jewish Christians receded farther from mainstream
Christianity, and approximated more and more closely to Rabbinical Judaism, resulting in a
"degeneration" into an exclusively Jewish sect. Some from these groups later opened themselves to
either Jewish Gnostic (and possibly Essene) or syncretic influences, such as the book of Elchasai.[31]
The latter influence places some Ebionites in the context of the gnostic movements widespread in
Syria and the lands to the east.[4][15]
After the end of the First Jewish-Roman War, the importance of the Jerusalem church began to
fade. Jewish Christianity became dispersed throughout the Jewish diaspora in the Levant, where it
was slowly eclipsed by gentile Christianity, which then spread throughout the Roman Empire
without competition from "judaizing" Christian groups.[32] Once the Jerusalem church, still headed
by Jesus' relatives, was eliminated during the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135, the Ebionites gradually lost
influence and followers. According to one writer their decline was due to marginalization and
"persecution" by both Jews and Christians.[7] Following the defeat of the rebellion and the expulsion
of all Jews from Judea, Jerusalem became the Gentile city of Aelia Capitolina. Many of the Jewish
Christians residing at Pella renounced their Jewish practices at this time and joined to the
mainstream Christian church. Those who remained at Pella and continued in obedience to the Law
were deemed heretics.[33] In 375, Epiphanius records the settlement of Ebionites on Cyprus, but by
the mid-5th century, Theodoret of Cyrrhus reported that they were no longer present in the
Some scholars argue that the Ebionites survived much longer and identify them with a sect
encountered by the historian Abd al-Jabbar around the year 1000.[34] Another possible reference to
surviving Ebionite communities in northwestern Arabia, specifically the cities of Tayma and
Tilmas, around the 11th century, appears in Sefer Ha'masaot, the "Book of the Travels" of Rabbi
Benjamin of Tudela, a rabbi from Spain.[35] 12th century Muslim historian Muhammad alShahrastani mentions Jews living in nearby Medina and Hejaz who accepted Jesus as a prophetic
figure and followed traditional Judaism, rejecting mainstream Christian views.[36] Some scholars
argue that they contributed to the development of the Islamic view of Jesus due to exchanges of
Ebionite remnants with the first Muslims.[6][4]
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, several small yet competing new religious movements,
such as the Ebionite Jewish Community and others, have emerged claiming to be revivalists of the
views and practices of early Ebionites,[37] although their idiosyncratic claims to authenticity cannot
be verified.
The counter-missionary group Jews for Judaism favorably mentions the historical Ebionites in their
literature in order to argue that "Messianic Judaism", as promoted by missionary groups such as
Jews for Jesus, is Pauline Christianity misrepresenting itself as Judaism.[38] Some Messianic groups
have expressed concern over leaders in Israel that deny Jesus' divinity and the possible collapse of
the Messianic movement due to a resurgence of Ebionitism.[39][40] In a recent polemic, a Messianic
leader asked whether Christians should imitate the Torah-observance of "neo-Ebionites".[41]
Views and practices
Judaic and Gnostic Ebionitism
Most patristic sources portray the Ebionites as traditional yet ascetic Jews, who zealously followed
the Law of Moses, revered Jerusalem as the holiest city,[26] and restricted table fellowship only to
Gentiles who converted to Judaism.[25] They celebrated a commemorative meal annually,[42] on or
around Passover, with unleavened bread and water only, in contrast to the daily Christian
Epiphanius of Salamis is the only Church Father who describes some Ebionites as departing from
traditional Jewish principles of faith and practice; specifically by engaging in excessive ritual
bathing,[45] possessing an angelology which claimed that the Christ is a great archangel who was
incarnated in Jesus and adopted as the son of God,[46][47] opposing animal sacrifice,[47] denying parts
or most of the Law,[48] and practicing religious vegetarianism[49]
The reliability of Epiphanius' account of the Ebionites is questioned by some scholars.[1][50] Shlomo
Pines, for example, argues that the heterodox views and practices he ascribes to some Ebionites
originated in Gnostic Christianity rather than Jewish Christianity, and are characteristics of the
Elcesaite sect, which Epiphanius mistakenly attributed to the Ebionites.[34]
While mainstream biblical scholars do suppose some Essene influence on the nascent JewishChristian Church in some organizational, administrative and cultic respects, some scholars go
beyond that assumption. Among them, some hold theories which have been discredited and others
which remain controversial.[51]
Regarding the Ebionites specifically, a number of scholars have different theories on how the
Ebionites may have developed from an Essene Jewish messianic sect. Hans-Joachim Schoeps
argues that the conversion of some Essenes to Jewish Christianity after the Siege of Jerusalem in 70
CE may be the source of some Ebionites adopting Essene views and practices;[6] while some
conclude that the Essenes did not become Jewish Christians but still had an influence on the
The majority of Church Fathers agree that the Ebionites rejected many of the central Christian
views of Jesus such as the pre-existence, divinity, virgin birth, atoning death, and physical
resurrection of Jesus.[1] The Ebionites are described as emphasizing the oneness of God and the
humanity of Jesus as the biological son of both Mary and Joseph, who by virtue of his
righteousness, was chosen by God to be the messianic "prophet like Moses" (foretold in
Deuteronomy 18:14–22) when he was anointed with the holy spirit at his baptism.[7][53]
Of the books of the New Testament, the Ebionites are said to have accepted only a Hebrew version
of the Gospel of Matthew, referred to as the Gospel of the Hebrews, as additional scripture to the
Hebrew Bible. This version of Matthew, Irenaeus reports, omitted the first two chapters (on the
nativity of Jesus), and started with the baptism of Jesus by John.[26]
The Ebionites believed that all Jews and Gentiles must observe the commandments in the Law of
Moses,[25] in order to become righteous and seek communion with God,[54] but these
commandments must be understood in the light of Jesus' expounding of the Law,[53] revealed during
his sermon on the mount.[13] The Ebionites may have held a form of "inaugurated eschatology"
positing that the ministry of Jesus had ushered in the Messianic Age so that the kingdom of God
might be understood as present in an incipient fashion, while at the same time awaiting
consummation in the future age.[7][53]
James vs. Paul
James, the brother of the Lord, presided over the Jerusalem church after the other apostles
dispersed.[55] Paul, self appointed Apostle to the Gentiles, established many churches[56] and
founded a Christian theology, see Pauline Christianity. At the Council of Jerusalem (c 49),[55] Paul
argued to abrogate Mosaic observances[57] for his non-Jewish converts, but Paul's arguments were
rejected, and Jewish Law and tradition concerning non-Jewish followers were asserted by reference
to Noahide Law. For the parallel in Judaism, see Noachide law.
Some scholars[58][59] argue that the Ebionites regarded James, brother of Jesus, the first bishop of
Jerusalem,[60] the rightful leader of the Church rather than Peter. James Tabor argues that the
Ebionites claimed a unique dynastic apostolic succession for the relatives of Jesus.[61] They opposed
the Apostle Paul, who established that gentile Christians did not have to be circumcised or
otherwise follow the Law of Moses, and named him an apostate.[26] Epiphanius relates that some
Ebionites alleged that Paul was a Greek who converted to Judaism in order to marry the daughter of
a high priest of Israel but apostasized when she rejected him.[62]
Few writings of the Ebionites have survived, and these are in uncertain form. The Recognitions of
Clement and the Clementine Homilies, two 3rd century Christian works, are regarded by general
scholarly consensus as largely or entirely Jewish Christian in origin and reflect Jewish Christian
beliefs. The exact relationship between the Ebionites and these writings is debated, but Epiphanius's
description of some Ebionites in Panarion 30 bears a striking similarity to the ideas in the
Recognitions and Homilies. Scholar Glenn Alan Koch speculates that Epiphanius likely relied upon
a version of the Homilies as a source document.[29]
The Catholic Encyclopedia classifies the Ebionite writings into four groups:[63]
The Gospel of the Ebionites: According to Irenaeus, the Ebionites used only the Gospel of
Matthew. Eusebius of Caesarea[64] mentions a Gospel of the Hebrews, often identified as the
slightly modified Aramaic original of Matthew, written with Hebrew letters. Such a work
was known to Hegesippus,[64] Origen[65] and to Clement of Alexandria.[66] Epiphanius of
Salamis attributes this gospel to Nazarenes, and claims that Ebionites only possessed an
incomplete, falsified, and truncated copy.[67] The question remains whether Epiphanius was
able to accurately distinguish between Nazarenes and Ebionites.
Apocrypha of the New Testament: The Circuits of Peter and Acts of the Apostles, including
the work usually titled the Ascents of James. The first-named books are substantially
contained in the Homilies of Clement under the title of Clement's Compendium of Peter's
itinerary sermons, and also in the Recognitions attributed to Clement. They form an early
Christian didactic fiction to express Jewish Christian views, i.e. the primacy of James the
Just, their connection with the episcopal see of Rome, and their antagonism to Simon
Magus, as well as gnostic doctrines. Scholar Robert E. Van Voorst opines of the Ascents of
James (R 1.33–71), "There is, in fact, no section of the Clementine literature about whose
origin in Jewish Christianity one may be more certain".[50] Despite this assertion, he
expresses reservations that the material is genuinely Ebionite in origin.
The Works of Symmachus the Ebionite: Symmachus produced a translation of the Hebrew
Bible into Koine Greek, which was used by Jerome and is still extant in fragments, and
Hypomnemata written to counter the canonical Gospel of Matthew. The latter work, which
is totally lost[68][69] is probably identical with De distinctione præceptorum mentioned by
Ebed Jesu (Assemani, Bibl. Or., III, 1).
The Book of Elchesai claimed to have been written about 100 CE and brought to Rome in c.
217 CE by Alcibiades of Apamea. Ebionites deemed those who accepted its gnostic
doctrines apostates.[70][71]
Some also speculate that the core of the Gospel of Barnabas, beneath a polemical medieval Muslim
overlay, may have been based upon an Ebionite or gnostic document.[72] The existence and origin of
this source continues to be debated by scholars.[73]
Religious perspectives
The mainstream Christian view of the Ebionites is based on the polemical views of the Church
Fathers who portrayed them as heretics for rejecting many of the central Christian views of Jesus,
and allegedly having an improper fixation on the Law of Moses at the expense of the grace of
God.[63] In this view, the Ebionites may have been the descendants of a Jewish Christian sect within
the early Jerusalem church which broke away from its mainstream theology.[74]
Some Christian apologists have criticized the quest for the historical Jesus as having resulted in a
"revival of the Ebionite heresy".[75] Some scholars with mainstream Christian beliefs are
acknowledging the recent emphasis on the Jewishness of Jesus and his earliest followers, and
commenting on how they reconciled the Jewish Jesus with the Christ of faith.[76]
The mainstream Jewish view of the Ebionites is that they were Jewish heretics due to their refusal
to see Jesus as a false prophet and failed Jewish Messiah claimant but also for wanting to include
their gospel into the canon of the Hebrew Bible.[7]
Some Muslims who charge Christians with having corrupted the Bible, believe that the Ebionites
(as opposed to Christians they encountered) were faithful to the original teachings of Jesus with
shared views about Jesus' humanity, though the Islamic view of Jesus conflicts with the Ebionites'
views regarding the virgin birth and the crucifixion.[77]
1. ^ a b c d A.F.J. Klijn & G.J. Reinink (1973). Patristic Evidence for Jewish-Christian Sects,
Brill. ISBN 9004037632.
2. ^ See also Church Fathers on the Ebionites (Wikisource)
3. ^ a b c d e f g G. Uhlhorn, "Ebionites", in: Philip Schaff (ed.), A Religious Encyclopaedia or
Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd ed. (1894), p.
684–685 (vol. 2).
4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Oscar Cullmann, "Ebioniten", in: Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart,
1958. p. 7435 (vol. 2).
5. ^ article Ebionite
6. ^ a b c Hans-Joachim Schoeps (1969). Jewish Christianity: Factional Disputes in the Early
Church. Translation Douglas R. A. Hare, Fortress Press.
7. ^ a b c d e f Hyam Maccoby (1987). The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity,
HarperCollins. pp. 172–183.. ISBN 0062505858.
8. ^ Robert Eisenman (1997). James the Brother of Jesus: The Key to Unlocking the Secrets of
Early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Viking. pp. 5–6.. ISBN 1842930265.
9. ^ James Tabor (2006). The Jesus Dynasty: A New Historical Investigation of Jesus, His
Royal Family, and the Birth of Christianity, Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743287231.
10. ^ Tabor (2006), p. 275, 278-283.
11. ^ Howard Bream's review of H. J. Schoeps, Theologie und Geschichte des
Judenchristentums (1949), in: The Journal of Religion (1952), p. 58: "In the development of
Christianity itself, he [Schoeps] believes that they [the Ebionites] were in many respects
closer to the teachings of Jesus than were the Gentiles. This is true particularly where the
Ebionites differed from normative Judaism, as in rejecting animal sacrifice and in deleting
certain passages from Scripture with the claim that they were interpolations."
12. ^ Kaufmann Kohler, "Ebionites", in: Isidore Singer & Cyrus Alder (ed.), Jewish
Encyclopedia, 1901-1906.
13. ^ a b c Francois P. Viljoen. "Jesus' Teaching on the Torah in the Sermon on the Mount".
Neotestamenica 40.1, pp. 135-155.. "Jesus' Teaching on the Torah in the Sermon on the
Mount" (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
14. ^ Tim Hegg. "The Virgin Birth - An Inquiry into the Biblical Doctrine" (PDF).
TorahResource. Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
15. ^ a b Adolf von Harnack, The History of Dogma, "Chapter VI. The Christianity of the Jewish
16. ^ Lindsay Jones (ed.) Encyclopedia of Religion, Detroit: Thomason-Gale, 2005, p. 25952596. ISBN 0-02-865997-X.
17. ^ The word is still in use in that sense in contemporary Israeli Hebrew
18. ^ PsSal 10, 6; 15, 1; 1 QpHab XII, 3.6.10
19. ^ Minucius Felix, Octavius, 36: "That we are called the poor is not our disgrace, but our
20. ^ The Greek equivalent (Greek: πτωχοί) ptōkhoi appears in the New Testament (Romans 15,
26; Galatians 2,10), possibly as an honorary title of the Jerusalem church.
21. ^ a b James Tabor, Nazarenes and Ebionites
22. ^ a b Eisenman (1997), p. 4, 45.
23. ^ Origen, Contra Celsum, II, 1.
24. ^ ANF04. Fathers of the Third Century: Tertullian, Part Fourth; Minucius Felix;
Commodian; Origen, Parts First and Second | Christian Classics Ethereal Library
25. ^ a b c Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, 47.
26. ^ a b c d Irenaeus of Lyon, Adversus Haereses I, 26; II,21.
27. ^ Origen, De Principiis, IV, 22.
28. ^ a b Epiphanius of Salamis, Panarion, 30.
29. ^ a b Glenn Alan Koch (1976). A Critical Investigation of Epiphanius' Knowledge of the
Ebionites: A Translation and Critical Discussion of 'Panarion' 30, University of
30. ^ a b c Henry Wace & William Piercy (1911). A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography,
Retrieved on 1 August 2007.
31. ^ Peter Kirby. "Book of Elchasai". Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
32. ^ Brandon, S. G. F (1968). The fall of Jerusalem and the Christian church: A study of the
effects of the Jewish overthrow of A. D. 70 on Christianity, S.P. C.K. ISBN 0281004501.
33. ^ Edward Gibbon (2003). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. 15, p. 390–391.,
Random House, NY. ISBN 0375758119. Chapter 15, Retrieved on 2
August 2007.
34. ^ a b Shlomo Pines (1966). The Jewish Christians Of The Early Centuries Of Christianity
According To A New Source, Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and
Humanities II, No. 13. ISBN 102-255-998.
35. ^ Marcus N. Adler (1907). The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: Critical Text, Translation
and Commentary, p. 70–72., Phillip Feldheim.
36. ^ Muhammad al-Shahrastani (2002). The Book of Religious and Philosophical Sects,
William Cureton edition, page 167, Gorgias Press.
37. ^ Self Help Guide. "Jesus Christ". Retrieved on 2006-02-21.
38. ^ Bentzion Kravitz (2001). The Jewish Response to Missionaries: Counter-Missionary
Handbook, Jews for Judaism International.
39. ^ Moshe Koniuchowsky. ""Messianic" Leaders Deny Yeshua in Record Numbers".
Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
40. ^ James Prasch. "You Foolish Galatians, Who Bewitched You? A Crisis in Messianic
Judaism?". Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
41. ^ John Parsons. "Should Christians be Torah-observant?". Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
42. ^ W.M. Ramsey. "The Tekmoreian Guest-Friends, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 32,
p. 151-170.".
43. ^ Exarch Anthony J. Aneed. "Syrian Christians, A Brief History of the Catholic Church of
St. George in Milwaukee, Wis. And a Sketch of the Eastern Church". Retrieved on 2007-0428.
44. ^ Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies V, 1.
45. ^ Epiphanius, Panarion, 19:28–30.
46. ^ Epiphanius, Panarion, 30, 14, 5.
47. ^ a b Epiphanius, Panarion, 30, 16, 4-5.
48. ^ Epiphanius, Panarion, 30, 18, 7–9.
49. ^ Epiphanius, Panarion, 30.22.4
50. ^ a b Robert E. van Voorst (1989). The Ascents of James: History and Theology of a JewishChristian Community, Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 1555402941.
51. ^ Géza Vermes. "Brother James' Heirs? the community at Qumran and its relations to the
first Christians (Times Literary Supplement)".
52. ^ Kriste Stendahl (1991). The Scrolls and the New Testament, Herder & Herder. ISBN
53. ^ a b c Tabor, James D.. "Ancient Judaism: Nazarenes and Ebionites". Retrieved on 2006-0931.
54. ^ Hippolytus
55. ^ a b Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford
University Press. 2005, article Jerusalem
56. ^ Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford
University Press. 2005, article Paul, St
57. ^ Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford
University Press. 2005, article Acts of the Apostles
58. ^ Eisenman (1997), p. 155-184.
59. ^ Tabor (2006), p. 222-223, 231.
60. ^ James is traditionally considered the leader of the Jerusalem church. As such he appears in
Acts (15 and 21), Eusebius of Caesarea (Church History II, 1, 2), Clement of Alexandria
(quoted by Eusebius in Church History I, 1, 3–4), Hegesippus (quoted by Eusebius in
Church History II, 23, 4) and the Gospel of Thomas (saying 12).
61. ^ Tabor (2006), p. 4, 74, 222, 226.
62. ^ Epiphanius of Salamis, Panarion, 16, 9.
63. ^ a b "Ebionites", Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. V (1909).
64. ^ a b Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History, IV, 21, 8.
65. ^ Jerome, De viris illustribus, 2
66. ^ Clement of Alexandria, Stromata II, 9, 45
67. ^ Epiphanius, Panarion 29, 9.
68. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History, VI, 17.
69. ^ Jerome, De viris illustribus, 54.
70. ^ Hippolytus, Philosophumena, IX, 14-17.
71. ^ Epiphanius, Panarion, 19, 1; 53, 1.
72. ^ John Toland, Nazarenus, or Jewish, Gentile and Mahometan Christianity, 1718.
73. ^ Blackhirst, R.. "Barnabas and the Gospels: Was There an Early Gospel of Barnabas?,
Journal of Higher Criticism, 7/1, p. 1–22.". Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
74. ^ Jean Daniélou (1964). The theology of Jewish Christianity: The Development of Christian
doctrine before the Council of Nicea, H. Regnery Co. ASIN B0007FOFQI.
75. ^ Brad Bromling. "Jesus: Truly God and Truly Human". Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
76. ^ William Loader. "Jesus the Jew". Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
77. ^ Abdulhaq al-Ashanti & Abdur-Rahmaan Bowes (2005). Before Nicea: The Early
Followers of Prophet Jesus, Jamia Media. ISBN 0955109906.
Eisenman, Robert (1997). James the Brother of Jesus: The Key to Unlocking the Secrets of
Early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Viking. ISBN 1842930265.
Tabor, James D. (2006). The Jesus Dynasty: A New Historical Investigation of Jesus, His
Royal Family, and the Birth of Christianity, Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743287231.
G. Uhlhorn, "Ebionites", in: Philip Schaff (ed.), A Religious Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of
Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd ed. (1894), p. 684–685 (vol. 2).
Wilson, Barrie (2008). How Jesus Became Chrisitan - The early Chritians and the
transformation of a Jewish teacher into the Son of God, Orion. ISBN 978 0 297 85200 1.
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