Christian ethics is a branch of Christian theology that defines concepts of right (virtuous) and wrong (sinful) behavior from a Christian perspective. Various sources inform Christian ethics but ""comprehensive Christian ethical writings use four distinguishable sources: (1) the Bible and the Christian tradition, (2) philosophical principles and methods, (3) science and other sources of knowledge about the world, and (4) human experience broadly conceived."" Jewish ethics and the life of Jesus also figure prominently. According to D. Stephen Long, ""The Bible is the universal and fundamental source of specifically Christian ethics"", as ""Christian ethics finds its source in diverse means, but it primarily emerges from the biblical narrative."". Christians do not all follow one type of ethics. It depends on their view of Scripture and Tradition.Christian ethicists often engage with and draw from secular ethics. Like secular ethicists, different thinkers approach Christian ethics from different perspectives, variously using deontological, consequentialist, utilitarian and other frameworks for ethical reflection. The approach of virtue ethics has also become popular in recent decades, largely due to the work of Alasdair MacIntyre and Stanley Hauerwas.Christian ethics developed during Early Christianity as Christianity arose in the Holy Land and other early centers of Christianity while Christianity emerged from Second Temple Judaism. Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire erupted periodically, beginning with the Crucifixion of Jesus in Roman Judaea (c.30-33 AD) and periodically continued until Christianity was legalized under Constantine in 313 and became the state church of the Roman Empire in 380. Consequently, early Christian ethics included discussions of how believers should relate to Roman authority and to the empire. It also included questions regarding how the rich should treat the poor, how women should be treated, and the morality of war.Christian ethics have been criticized for a variety of reasons, including ideas that exist in Biblical scripture that Christians have relied on to guide their actions. These include Old Testament stories that provide negative examples along with positive examples, as well as prescriptions that have caused some people to act in ways many modern observers would find wrong (such as permitting slavery).`Various ideas in the New Testament have also been criticized as being morally suspect.