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Transcript
Key
Phys. 102: Introduction to Astronomy
Name: ___________________
IMAGES: CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER (OR TWO TO SPLIT THE POINTS)
THE IMAGES TO WHICH THESE REFER ARE ON THE “FINAL” POWERPOINT ON THE T DRIVE.
1)2 This nebula in Lyra Ring Nebula
a) shows how stars form.
b) shows the likely fate of Sol.
c) is a supernova remnant.
2)2 The blue color of this nebula near the winter solstice
Trifid Nebula
a) arises from the Balmer γ transition.
b) is due to preferential scattering of blue light as in Earth’s sky.
c) is the light from an embedded blue star.
3)2 The “Pillars of Creation” on this image Eagle Nebula
a) show the destruction of a nebula by a supernova explosion
b) are the jets from a young star’s “helium flash.”
c) harbor forming stars and solar systems.
4)2 The stars in this “Jewel Box” of the southern hemisphere are
a) young stars still in their nursery “open cluster.”
b) not physically associated, but aligned along our line of sight.
c) in the nearest globular cluster to Earth.
5)2 This world is Io
a) 10 AU from the sun
b) Io, one of the Galilean moons of Jupiter.
c) yellow due to the presence of Uranium ore on its surface.
6)2 The 300 billion stars in this galaxy, Andromeda
a) have priority reservations at the Betty Ford Center.
b) are about 100,000 light years away from us.
c) are so distant they create only a dim smudge in Earth’s sky.
Earth
7)2 On the surface of this world
a) there are no impact craters.
b) are the only known sticks in the universe.
c) the land area is about twice the area of Mars.
8)2 The fuzzy object M87
a) is an elliptical galaxy in Virgo.
b) is M13, the globular cluster in Hercules.
c) shows a world in formation by accretion.
What is life?
It is the flash of a firefly in the night.
It is the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime.
It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.”
~Crowfoot
Phys. 102: Introduction to Astronomy
Final 2009
AOD 12/18/2009
9)2 These objects are Dusty disks in Orion
a) infant stars still embedded in their planet-forming disks in the Orion Nebula
b) distant, young spiral galaxies with thick dust lanes seen edge-on.
c) nearby elliptical galaxies in the throes of a “starburst” stage
10)2 The expanding clouds from this object are the result of
Eta Carinae
a) a red giant star’s helium flash.
b) the first burst of energy from a new star.
c) an outburst by a 100 MSol star in its death throes .
11)2 The blur of stuff in this image is
Crab Nebula
a) a wide view of the Crab Nebula supernova remnant in Taurus.
b) high-speed material blasted out of a pulsar.
c) a galaxy in Ursa Major undergoing a burst of star formation as seen by the HST.
12)2 The blurred arcs in this image Gravitational lens
a) are the gravity-warped images of galaxies far beyond the cluster of galaxies Abell 2218.
b) show the imperfections in the Hubble Telescope’s mirror from micro-meteorite collisions.
c) galaxies that are warped by interacting with the other galaxies in the image.
13)2 The horse head in this image is Horse Head Nebula
a) a region free of gas as shown by distant stars seen below it.
b) dust backlit by Lyman α emission.
c) dust backlit by Balmer α emission.
14)2 The dusty region in this image shows Centaurus A galaxy
a) a spiral galaxy between Earth and the elliptical galaxy in the background
b) the elliptical galaxy may have just eaten a spiral, causing star formation.
c) the result of a supernova explosion in an elliptical galaxy.
I screamed,
and – lo! – Infinity
Came down and
settled over me.
Edna St. Vincent Millay
M 82
15)2 The blur of stuff in this image is
a) a wide view of the Crab Nebula supernova remnant in Taurus.
b) high-speed material blasted out of a pulsar.
c) a galaxy in Ursa Major undergoing a burst of star formation as seen by the HST.
16)2 The blur of stuff in this image is Crab Nebula central region
a) a wide view of the Crab Nebula supernova remnant in Taurus.
b) material surrounding and blasted out of a pulsar.
c) a galaxy in Ursa Major undergoing a burst of star formation as seen by the HST.
Page 2
Phys. 102: Introduction to Astronomy
Final 2009
AOD 12/18/2009
17)16 Use the equations given to complete the table:
⎛ sin δ ⎞
Arise = cos −1 ⎜
⎟ degrees
⎝ cos λ ⎠
α
Canton, NY (λ = 44.6° N)
δ
Star
Other Name
α Ori
Betelgeuse
05 55.2
δ Ori
Mintaka
2
cos −1 ( − tan λ tan δ ) hours
15
Δt =
Aset = 360 − Arise degrees
Arise
Aset
Δt
7° 24’
79.6°
280.4°
12.98 = 12h 58min
05h 32.1m
-0° 18’
79.6°
280.4°
12.04 = 12h 2min
h
m
Date
Sol
Dec 18
17h 41.5m
–23.4°
122.7°
237.3°
8.77 = 8h 46min
Sol
June 21
6h 000m
+23.5°
55.9°
304.1°
15.39 = 15h 23min
18)20 Use the constants σ = 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2K4, LSOL=3.827 x 1026 W, and
RSOL = 6.96 x 108 m and the equations below to complete the table.
TEMPERATURE
FROM
SPECTRAL TYPE
⎡ T − Tmin ⎤
T = Tmax − (subclass) × ⎢ max
⎥
10
⎣
⎦
LUMINOSITY
RADIUS
FROM
FROM
MAGNITUDES
LUMINOSITY
.
Lstar = 10
LS t a r
RS tar =
Field Guide to the Stars & Planets
V
MV
rS
Spectral
ly
Type
Star
⎛ MSol − MStar ⎞
⎜
⎟
2. 5
⎝
⎠
4 πσ T 4
Calculated
T
K
Solar Lums.
Lstar
Watts
Rstar
m
Rstar/RSol
ratio
Rigel (β Ori)
0.12
-6.6
773
B8 I
13,800
36,983
1.42 x 1031
23.4 x 109
33.6
Mintaka (δ Ori)
2.23
-5.4
916
0 9.5 II
25,750
12,246
4.69 x 1030
3.87 x 109
5.6
Scheat (β Peg)
2.4
-1.7
199
M2 II
3,400
405.5
1.55 x 1029
40.4 x 109
58.0
19)8 Complete the following table for the phases of the moon :
PHASE
ELONGATION
degrees E or W
RISING TIME
TRANSIT TIME
SETTING TIME
Waning Crescent
~45° W
3 am
9 am
3 pm
1st Quarter
90° E
Noon
6 pm
Midnight
Waning Gibbous
~135° W
9 pm
3 am
9 am
New
180°
6 am
NOON
6 pm
90° W
Midnight
6 am
Noon
3
rd
Quarter
Page 3
Phys. 102: Introduction to Astronomy
Final 2009
AOD 12/18/2009
20)10 In the table below, fill in the blanks to explain what event occurred at each time and the contents
of the universe during each era
TIME
ERA
t=0
EVENT OR CONTENTS
Time Begins … the beginning of the universe
Planck
t ≈ 10-43 sec
Quantum foam … nature unknown
Gravity separates from the other three forces
GUT
Inflation
t ≈ 10-38 sec
Elementary particles of matter and antimatter (leptons &
quarks) forming out of energy
Universe undergoes HUGE, RAPID expansion (due to
separation of Strong Nuclear Force?)
The strong force separates from electroweak
Electroweak
t ≈ 10-10 sec
Elementary particle (leptons & quarks) soup
Electromagnetic & weak forces separate
Particle
t ≈ 10-3 sec
Quarks bind into protons & neutrons (1 n0 for each 7 p+).
Ends with matter/antimatter annihilation … only matter left
Last matter-antimatter annihilation
Nucleosynthesis
t ≈ 3 min
Nuclei of He (and some others) formed by fusion
Fusion ends … matter is 75% H nuclei, 25% He nuclei
Nuclei
t ≈ 500,000 yr
Plasma of H and He nuclei and electrons.
The universe begins to becomes transparent
Atoms
Nuclei capture electrons to form atoms and the
universe becomes transparent.
t ≈ 1,000,000 yr
First galaxies form
Galaxies
Stars, galaxies, puppies, kittens and us!
Page 4
Phys. 102: Introduction to Astronomy
Final 2009
AOD 12/18/2009
21) 24 For the following questions, refer to the Sky Gazer’s Almanac for 2010.
a)4 When is Earth at perihelion? How far from the Sun will it be? When is at aphelion and what will
be its distance from the sun?
Perihelion: January 2nd at 7 pm EST at 91,402,485 miles from the sun
Aphelion: July 6th at 7 am EDT at 94,508,351 miles from Sol.
b)2 What is the date of the latest sunrise at 40° N in 2010? When is the earliest sunrise?
The latest sunset is on January 4th, the earliest sunrise is on June 14.
c)4 When do the Vernal Equinox (date & time) and the Summer Solstice (date) occur? How many hours
of daylight will there be at 40° N on the solstice?
Vernal Equinox, March 20 at 1:32 pm EDT
Summer Solstice: June 21st, 15hours, 1 minute o f daylight
d)2 What noteworthy event happens on July 11?
Total eclipse of the sun on Easter Island, Chile and Argentina
e)12 Complete the table
TIME (EST)
TIME (EDT)
EVENT
7:32 pm
8:32 pm
Sunset
7:53 pm
8:53 pm
Lower Culmination of Polaris
8:08 pm
9:08 pm
Mercury Sets
9:34 pm
10:34 pm
End of Evening Twilight
9:49 pm
10:49 pm
Neptune Rises
9:50 pm
10:50 pm
Venus Sets
10:40 pm
11:40 pm
Mars Sets
11:10 pm
12:10 am
Uranus Rises
11:17 pm
12:17 am
Jupiter Rises
11:18 pm
12:18 am
Saturn Sets
11:30 pm
12:30 am
Waning Crescent Moon Rises
12:00 am
1:00 am
Clock Midnight
12:04 am
1:04 am
Solar Midnight
1:49 pm
2:49 pm
Deneb Transits
2:36 am
3:36 am
Beginning of Morning Twilight
3:10 am
4:10 am
Neptune Transits
4:34 am
5:34 am
Betelgeuse Rises
4:37 am
5:37 am
Sunrise
Page 5
Phys. 102: Introduction to Astronomy
Final 2009
AOD 12/18/2009
22)5 On the first day of class, you were handed a page introducing the course on which was the
following quote,
Science is simply a long and careful look beneath and beyond the world's skin. In the same field where I see only a
muddle of anonymous green, Henry David Thoreau, scientist of Walden Pond, saw infinite variety: cotton grass, foxtail, lifeeverlasting, goldenrod, Saint Johnswort, mullein, meadowsweet. An astronomer sees a sky far richer than mine, filled with
quasars and pulsars, galaxies and nebulas. In all that bickering at the bird feeder, an ornithologist sees pair bonds and
pecking order. In that annoying rock dug out of the strawberry patch, a geologist sees grey granite left in the 10,000-year-old
path of glaciers. This new depth of seeing has taken us from the beetles in our own back yards to the particles inside the
atom and the gaseous glow at the end of the universe.
-- Rebecca Rupp
Are you able to see “beneath the world’s skin” now at the end of the semester more than you did at
the beginning? What have you learned in this course that surprised or moved you, or that you’ve found
yourself thinking or talking about at odd times? What do you wish I’d asked on this exam? What do you
think will stick with you after you’ve left SLU?
You are a child of the universe, no less than the
trees and the stars; you have a right to be here.
And whether or not it is clear to you, no doubt the
universe is unfolding as it should.
Therefore, be at peace with God, whatever you
conceive God to be, and whatever your labors and
aspirations, in the noisy confusion of life, keep
peace with your soul. With all its sham, drudgery
and broken dreams, it is still a beautiful world.
Be careful. Strive to be happy.
Page 6