Download Andy's Dissertation Appendix 2

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Electric machine wikipedia, lookup

History of geomagnetism wikipedia, lookup

Magnetic core wikipedia, lookup

Electrostatics wikipedia, lookup

Electric charge wikipedia, lookup

Lorentz force wikipedia, lookup

Magnetic monopole wikipedia, lookup

Magnetoreception wikipedia, lookup

Superconductivity wikipedia, lookup

Electromagnetism wikipedia, lookup

History of electromagnetic theory wikipedia, lookup

Magnetic field wikipedia, lookup

Neutron magnetic moment wikipedia, lookup

Scanning SQUID microscope wikipedia, lookup

Eddy current wikipedia, lookup

Superconducting magnet wikipedia, lookup

Magnetohydrodynamics wikipedia, lookup

History of electrochemistry wikipedia, lookup

Force between magnets wikipedia, lookup

Faraday paradox wikipedia, lookup

Hall effect wikipedia, lookup

Electricity wikipedia, lookup

Magnetism wikipedia, lookup

Magnetochemistry wikipedia, lookup

Multiferroics wikipedia, lookup

Ferrofluid wikipedia, lookup

Magnet wikipedia, lookup

Friction-plate electromagnetic couplings wikipedia, lookup

Magnetic nanoparticles wikipedia, lookup

Static electricity wikipedia, lookup

Static (DC Comics) wikipedia, lookup

List of Static supporting characters wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
APPENDIX 2
STUDENTS' DIAGRAMS of MAGNETIC MATERIALS
CONTENTS:
page
Cycle I Elicitation Individual and Group Diagrams, Day 1..................... 176
Cycle II Elicitation Individual and Group Diagrams, Day 6.................... 186
Group Diagrams Beginning and Ending Activity II-D1, Day 6 ...............
196
Group Diagrams beginning and ending Activity II-D3, Day 8................. 199
Group Candidate Models for Cycle II, Day 8.................................... 201
175
176
Cycle I Elicitation Individual and Group Diagrams, Day 1
Notes: Only students' diagrams of the refrigerator and magnet are shown. Diagrams of
static electricity have been omitted. Students' initial written ideas are included. Students
were asked to talk within their groups and write down more ideas, those are not included
here. The group pictures were drawn on whiteboards.
Group 1
Marge
Writing on I-E sheet
Similarities: stick together; can pull apart and
reattach
Differences: static wears off; static does not
occur when wet; magnetic is with firm metal
objects, static can be flexible, i.e. hair and
comb.
Donna
Similarities: Energy forces that are attracted to
each other, causing them to stick; the energy is
charged(?)
Differences: In magnetism, opposite forces of
energy attract (similarity) ; with static
electricity, energy is created, and the friction of
the energy causes the articles to stick.
Anne
(not in this group yet)
Group Diagram
(Presented by Marge)
piece of metal would. Positive charges
would stick to negative charges that are
on the door, and negative charges would
stick to the positive charges on the door. .
."
Written:
Similarities: Both cause articles to stick
together. Both can pull apart and
Spoken:
reattach. Energy forces create the
"The magnet has two different charges on attraction, the energy is charged
it, a positive charge and a negative charge. Differences: Static electricity wears off,
The refrigerator is metal. We figure there static requires heat, magnets do not, static
are positive and negative charges all
articles to be dry, static requires
within the refrigerator door so that spoons requires
friction
don't stick to it but a magnetized charged
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
177
Group 2
Janet
Writing on I-E sheet
Similarities: things are attracted to each
other; things may be hard to pull apart;
opposites attract, similar repel
Differences: more of an electric charge
with static; more perceptible, heat seems
to be involved in static electricity;
magnetism involves poles
Magnetism: Gravity, tides
Abby
Similarities: pull together; hard effects to
prevent (in given situations)
Differences: you can feel static sparks;
different feeling
Max
Similarities: Objects attract in both; both
pull together
Differences: In Static you can feel the
elect. as you pull clothes apart. Static
electricity is caused by electrical heat
Group Diagram
(Presented by Janet)
Spoken:
" we have a positive and negative and
they're attracting each other and that's
why the magnet's sticking to the
refrigerator."
Written:
Similarities: two things attracted to each
other, the attraction can be so strong that
it's difficult to pull them apart.
Differences: Definite electrical charge
with static that you don't notice with
magnetism, you need dry heat for static
electricity, magnetism involves more
pushing and pulling forces.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
178
Group 3
Kris
Writing on I-E sheet
Similarities: attraction between objects
Differences: magnetic force seems to be
a one-way attraction, IE magnets are
pulled toward metal objects; static seems
to be a mutual attraction between objects
of similar composition; composition of
objects
2) positive and negative forces working
against/for each other
Lupita
Similarities: sticking of articles
Differences: metal vs. cloth; magnetism
vs. some sort of static force
instances: balloon with hair on wall; key
chain magnet to draw hair
Allison
The refrigerator is
creating a pull from
itself to the magnet.
As the magnet gets
closer, the harder the
pull the refrigerator
to the magnet.
Group Diagram
Similarities: both cause articles to stick
together; attraction between objects
Differences: clothing- equal pull
between articles of clothing, magnet is
being pulled by refrigerator.
(Presented by Kris)
Spoken: "this [refrigerator] could
probably be a negative, a positive being
attracted to a negative."
Written:
Similarities: attraction between objects,
result of electric charges.
Differences: composition of articles,
magnetism - one way attraction, static
electricity - mutual attraction.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
179
Group 4
Carl
Writing on I-E sheet
metal, hard, cold
Julie
Magnetism: Polar attraction; hard
material
Stacy
No data
Group Diagram
(presented by Carl)
have more positives like at one end that
like makes it more of a positive charge,
and then it can . . . attach to the metal
refrigerator.
The refrigerator has positive and negative
charges all just scattered all around it
doesn't matter like any piece of metal.
. . .when you rub a magnet up against a
little piece of metal or whatever it makes
all the positive on one end and all the
negative at another end."
Spoken:
Written:
"How the magnet works is that . . one
Similarity: Positive and negative charges.
part of the magnet has more positive
charges at one end and all the negative
Differences: Static involves heat, soft,
charges are more at another end. When it friction. Magnetism involves, cold or hot,
attracts, when it touches, you have to
hard, non friction
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
180
Group 5
Anne
Diane
(in this group for one day)
Similarities: strong forces pulling objects together;
causes a sticking sensation; both involve the use of
electrical appliances
Differences: One is magnetic and the other is heat
generated; one deals with metal and the other deals with
cloth; magnet-solid (metal) static- clothing, hair,
carpet.
Writing on I-E sheet
Similarities: [??] attract to each other; both somehow
involve charges in order to attract to each other
Differences: Magnetism involves solid objects, static
involves clothing, latex balloons, wall; magnetism is
automatic while static effect needs external forces; static
effect involves heat while magnetism effect doesn't.
Kim
My group and I believe that it is a positive and negative
charge that attracts both the static electric & magnetic
effect.
Sandy
Similarities: Both attract objects to each other; makes
them stick together
Differences: requires a magnet for magnetic effect;
magnetism uses solid objects
Group Diagram
(Presented by Diane)
Spoken:
"..the refrigerator has the positive ions and
there's the magnetic pulls [inaudible] pulling the
magnet in. "
Written:
Similarities: both attract objects to each other, both
make objects stick together, both involve "charges."
Differences: magnetic effect requires a magnet and
metal but no friction, static electricity requires friction
and heat, when you pull apart socks or clothing you
can hear the static electricity, but not with magnets.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
181
Group 6
Maureen
Writing on I-E sheet
Similarities: Both cause objects to stick
together; both operate on the basis that
opposites attract
Differences: Magnetism operates with
polar effects; static operates with electric
charges, magnetism effects metallic
elements; static various effects, non
metallic elements
Kay
Jeanette
Similarities: magnetism: both contain
magnetic material
Differences: static doesn't have to
contain the same material
Group Diagram
(Presented by Maureen)
Spoken: "The magnet sticks due to a
polar attraction. Unlike poles attract,
North and South, like poles repel."
Written:
Similarities: Both cause objects to stick
together, opposites attract and similars
repel
Differences: Magnetism affects metallic
elements, static affects various different
materials, Static operates with electric
charges, magnetism is polar.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
182
Group 7
Bob
( Bob did not turn in his I-E document.)
(This is from Bob's learning commentary:)
"I understood that opposites attract. I also thought that
there were positive and negative sides. So ...... I
assumed that one must be positive and the other must be
negative. The magnet, being the active "sticker" was
assigned the positive role."
Debbie
Writing on I-E sheet
Magnetic: letters and numbers
Similarities: They both stick at one point.
Differences: Static doesn't necessarily stick together.
It's more of a cause and effect. Static will lose its
"sticking' effect.
Cindy
The refrigerator has certain properties. Example metal. If
the magnet has metal properties also then they would
attract and magnetize; magnet locks for cabinet drawers;
colorforms.
Similarities: attaching two properties; opposites attract
Differences: static is affected by weather, static can
happen by rubbing two things together; magnets only
stick to iron
Group Diagram
(Presented by Bob)
" magnet has a positive charge and
the refrigerator has a negative
charge. And then opposites attract
and causes the positive to attract to
the negative and the magnet will
stick."
Similarities: both have a positive and negative
charge, causing them to stick together.
Opposites attract, a positive will not attract to a
positive. Sticking qualities.
Differences: magnets need ferrous metals.
Static electricity is short lived, magnets will last
for a long time. Static electricity needs friction
and heat is involved. Static electricity produces
a sort of energy that can be measured when you
discharge it. Static loses its charges when it is
touched. Static electricity doesn't work
underwater, but magnets do.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
183
Group 8
Maria
Writing on I-E sheet
Similarities: Objects are attracted to each other and
stick together.
Differences: magnets stick/ are attracted
regardless of temperature or humidity; in static,
conditions must be a very dry environment with
very low humidity and heat is included; Sparks are
sometimes ignited whereas with magnets this
doesn't happen; in static, humans, cloth, and other
articles are involved.
Candace
Magnetism: 2 negatives make a
positive
Juana
Similarities: both magnet & clothes have an
electrical charge strong enough to cling to their
respective objects; dryer and fridge have metal
maybe having something to do with the clinging.
Differences: a magnet is strong enough to hold
paper in between it. Clothes are weaker; a magnet
will always stick to a fridge, clothes cannot stick
back together; clothing sticking can be controlled
(using fabric softener) a magnet will always stick.
Similarities: They both have two objects coming
in for attraction
Differences: magnetic has to do with ____; static
has to do with two natural objects.
Group Diagram
(presented by Candace)
Two negatives make a positive, and a positive
means that your magnet stays, and doesn't go
anywhere. . . . a positive and a negative make
negative and negatives don't stick."
Written:
Similarities: Both are strong enough to attract.
Both involve metal appliances.
Differences: A magnet has a stronger force than
Spoken: ". . . the refrigerator
clothes. A magnet will always stick to a
gives off negative charge and the refrigerator but you can't restick socks together.
magnet gives off negative
Fabric softener controls static but a magnet is
charge.
always going to stick.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
184
Group 9
Eina
Writing on I-E sheet
Magnetism: steel metal moves; [magnet
is a] body that attracts iron
Similarities: stick together both bodies
Differences:
Megan
[Picture is illegible]
Magnetism: magnet is a body that
attracts iron
Similarities: force of the two objects
sticking
Differences: static has electricity. Magnet
is a body of iron. Static does not move
whereas a magnet does
Susan
(was not in class this day)
Group Diagram
(Presented by Eina)
Spoken: "I don't know if the metal is
positive or it's negative. I know it has
something to do with positive and
negative because that's how they attract."
Written:
Similarities: both stick together, and both
are bodies.
Differences: static has electricity and
static involves dry atmosphere and
charges of electricity. Magnet involves a
heavier push or pull, Magnet is a body
that attracts iron.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
185
Group 10
Joan
Writing on I-E sheet
Similarities: pull together; hard effects to
prevent (in given situations)
Differences: you can feel static sparks;
different feeling
Mia
Magnetic waves form when opposite
charges come in contact.
Similarities: magnetic waves; traveling of
magnetic waves
Differences: friction in clothing sticking
together
Liz
Similarities: magnetism; both are metals
or fibers
Differences: Static effect has electrical
current; temperature; magnetism happens
easier, static only under certain [??]
Group Diagram
( Presented by Joan)
Written:
Similarities: both of them bond, traveling
of some type of magnetic or electric
waves or properties, same type of
material attracts one and the other, static
electricity attracted fiber to fiber.
Spoken:
Magnetism is metal to metal.
". . . .magnetism has different charges.
Differences: static electricity has an
Like stick together [to account for?]
magnetic waves coming together, the one electrical current to travel in between
is going to be positive and one of them is them, temperature is involved with static
electricity. Friction in clothing causes
going to be a negative charge which
them to stick together [but friction is not
makes them stick together. If the
magnets are same charges then they're not needed for magnets]
going to stick together."
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
186
Cycle II Elicitation Individual and Group Diagrams, Day 6
Group 1
Unrubbed nail
Rubbed nail
Marge
(Text from Marge's document is
below)
As you rub the nail in one direction with one end of the magnet, the forces attracted to
that end of the magnet are moved along the nail and concentrated in the end of the nail.
The nail then has the power to attract and repel like a magnet.
Donna
Two sides of a magnetic object behave differently. The process of rubbing with a
magnet to the nail magnetizes the nail. The process drags to one end, the opposite pole
(particles? charges?) of the nail - of that of the magnet. For example, if you take the
south end of a magnet and rub a nail - the north "particles" of the nail will be dragged
to the end of the nail. My reasoning why this process works is based on experimental
data and observation that opposite ends attract.
Anne
Rubbing a nail with a magnet, magnetizes the nail causing it to attract an unrubbed nail
in all directions, and either attract or repel another rubbed nail, depending on what end
you bring the original rubbed nail to.
Text on board
Group Diagram & more text
1) After rubbing a nail, the rubbed nail will
attract both sides of an unrubbed nail.
2) After rubbing two nails in the same
direction with the same end of the magnet,
like-ends will repel and unlike-ends will
attract.
3) The rubbing process drags the attracted
force to one end of the nail. The other
4) This model indicates that magnetism has
end is left with the opposite force.
a directional pull. Also, for magnetic
objects similar ends repel and opposite
ends attract.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
187
Group 2
Unrubbed nail
Rubbed nail
Janet
Unrubbed: Everything is jumbled so there is no magnetic effect. Rubbed: all
particles, or whatever, are pulled in the same direction once the nail is magnetized.
I think rubbing the nail with a magnet makes the nail become a magnet, for awhile
anyway. The rubbed nail acted like a magnet.
Abby
(Did not draw a diagram before class.)
(Max initially had a diagram with wavy lines inside
the nail but he erased them and drew Janet's
compass needles.)
The nail becomes a magnet once it is rubbed, and depending on what side of the
magnet that is used (N or S) to rub the nail, dictates what end of the nail will produce
the stronger magnetic force.
Max
Text on board
Group Diagram
Reason: Before rubbing the particles in
the nail are in disarray. After the nail is
rubbed by a magnet the particles in the
nail all pull in the same direction.
Evidence: Rubbed nails attracted and
repelled rubbed nails. Rubbed nails
pointed consistently in same direction.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
188
Group 3
Unrubbed nail
Rubbed nail
Kris
The process of rubbing the nail with the magnet causes the nail to become a
magnetized object.
Allison
When rubbing the magnet with the nail, either positive or negative charges are
transferred to from the magnet into the nail. This creates the nail having one end as
positive and the other as negative.
When we used the north pole of the magnet to rub the nail with, we began by rubbing
from the end of the nail that we wanted to point north and rubbed in only that one
direction. This experiment showed that maybe since opposite ends attract, that the
north pole magnet is negative & creates a positive charge into the nail, or vice- versa!
Lupita
As seen in previous experiments of rubbed and unrubbed nails, we have observed that
rubbing has an effect on the nails behavior. This suggests that the process of rubbing
a nail with a magnet magnetizes the nail and produces magnetic effects. It's also the
component of the nail, which is a ferromagnetic material which is affected by magnets.
These rubbed nails will now cause an attraction or repulsion with other rubbed and
unrubbed nails.
Text on board
Group Diagram
Rubbing a nail with a magnet causes it to
have North and South poles. The poles
are determined by which end of the
magnet was used to rub and the direction
the nail was rubbed.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
189
Group 4
Unrubbed nail
Rubbed nail
Carl
All the positive and negative polar ends pointing a particular way. Just like all the
positive and negative polar ends point in a magnet.
One of my biggest evidences was in the way we had to rub the nail, only in one
direction. and that after we did it, it acted like a magnet. Also in the way a nail pointed
as it went around a magnet.
Julie
Before it is rubbed all the + & - molecules are scattered through out the nail. when we
rub the nil with the negative side for example we are pulling all the positive ions to one
end, therefore leaving the neg at the other.
Stacy
(did not hand this in)
Text on board
Group Diagram
An unrubbed nail has its positive/negative
molecules scattered at random. When
rubbed, the negatives are pulled towards
one end and the positives toward the other
. . . depending on which end you rub
with.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
190
Group 5
Unrubbed nail
Rubbed nail
Diane
After a nail is rubbed with a magnet, the nail takes on the characteristics of the nail. A
magnet has a north pole end and a south pole end, the nail will have a north pole end
and a south pole end after being rubbed with a magnet. The magnet causes the north
and south poles to separate from one other and concentrate on to opposite sides of the
nail.
Sandy
When rubbing the nail with a magnet the poles opposite are pulled to either the head or
point depending on the direction of the rubbing.
Kyoko
It magnetizes the nail. The nail takes on the characteristics of a magnet depending on
which direction you rubbed the nail.
Kim
It allows the nail to act as a magnet & therefore will have a directional pull to the north
or south.
Text on board
Group Diagram
Similar poles repel, opposite poles attract.
The poles opposite of the magnet are
pulled to the direction of the rubbing.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
191
Group 6
Unrubbed nail
Rubbed nail
Maureen
The process or rubbing the nail with the magnet causes the nail to become magnetized.
The evidence from cycle I is that in every experiment in which we used a rubbed nail
and an unrubbed nail, only the rubbed nail produced an effect independent of the
magnet.
Kay
I think a rubbed nail becomes magnetized. Somehow there is a transfer or the
composition of the rubbed nail changes. Yet the direction the nail is rubbed in matters.
It must be rubbed in one direction, because of polarity.
Jeanette
I think that after the nail has been rubbed it has become magnetized and will show an
effect. Because it showed no effect when unrubbed, after rubbing it is magnetized and
will now show effect.
The nails act like a compass in which they have a north/south pull because of
magnetism.
Text on board
Group Diagram
Reasoning: Rubbing the nail with a
magnet causes it to become "magnetized."
We know this because in every
experiment in which we used a rubbed
nail and an unrubbed nail, only the
rubbed nail produced an effect
independent of the magnet.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
192
Group 7
Unrubbed nail
Rubbed nail
Bob
There is obviously a transfer of some of the magnetic charge from the magnet to the
nail. But I'm not sure if, by making a nail a magnet, it takes away some magnetism
from the magnet. Is it possible that, if you rub enough nails with a magnet, the
magnet would lose its magnetic qualities? My assumption is no. So, therefore, the
magnet must call forth some force to be added to the nail.
Cindy
Rubbing the nail with magnet creates a north and south pull which is also found in the
magnet. The nail is different when rubbed because the ions are separated to create the
north/south pull.
Debbie
The process of rubbing a magnet to the nail allows the nail to become magnetized.
Text on board
Two Group Diagrams
1. No charges. (Iron filings do not stick
to each other.)
2. Reasoning: transfer of charges from
magnet to nail.
First point North magnet touches
becomes north of the nail
1. We can not see inside a nail
2. Has mixed properties that are separated
when a magnet is used.
3. A magnet separates the charges to
create a north and south pull.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
193
Group 8
Unrubbed nail
Rubbed nail
Maria
It has now become magnetized and polarized by the influence of the magnet with
which it was rubbed.
Candace
It makes the magnetism polarized by the magnet that is was rubbed by Pos. on one
pole, negs on the other.
[How did you decide?] The non rubbed nail had 0 effect on any object. But once it
was rubbed, it attracted other metals to it.
Juana
When the nail is being rubbed with the magnet it's giving off some sort of energy to
the nail from the magnet. It's also giving off heat at the same time.
Text on board
Group Diagram
The nail has now been polarized by
having the - and + charges split up.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
194
Group 9
Unrubbed nail
Rubbed nail
Susan
The friction between the iron nail and the magnet causes an electron transfer. Thus,
charged electrons move from the magnet to the nail.
After the nail was rubbed it gained a charge which attracted the neutral/unrubbed nail.
It then repelled & attracted a rubbed/charged nail depending on which side was pointed
toward which pole.
Megan
Atoms line up in one direction. Opposite ends will attract and the same ends will
repel. Produces a magnetic effect it is now magnetized. Has poles set into it.
Eina
Rubbing the nail with the north side of the magnet will cause the flat end of the nail to
move towards the north. If rubbing the nail with the south side of the magnet will
cause the flat end moves toward the south. It is important to know which side of the
magnet we are using during an experiment.
Text on board
Group Diagram
When you have an unrubbed nail, it
contains positive and negative charges,
making it a neutral object. When you rub
a nail, the positive charges will go to one
end of the nail while the negative charges
will go to the opposite end. An unrubbed
nail will attract to both ends of a rubbed
nail. After the object has become
magnetized, the charges will align with
the earth's poles.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
195
Group 10
Unrubbed nail
Rubbed nail
Joan
[key to picture- x is possible magnetized materials, *multiplying of material occurred]
I believe the rubbing of the magnet on the nail stimulates the magnetism material in the
nail and causes it to react like a magnet to other magnetized materials (multiplying)
Mia
It changes the polarity of the magnet
Before we rubbed the magnet the head end was pointing north, after we rubbed it, the
direction it points changes depending on the end of another magnet that we rubbed it
with.
Liz
It magnetizes the atoms /ions in nail to the part of the nail which the direction of rub.
Text on board
Group Diagram
When the North Pole of Magnet was
rubbed from head to tip the head pointed
North.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
196
Group Diagrams Beginning and Ending Activity II-D1, Day 6
Group
Beginning II-D1
Ending II-D1
1
2
(Same diagram repeated)
3
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
197
Group
Beginning II-D1
Ending II-D1
4
Note: This group probably
intended that the bottom diagram be
a rubbed nail.
5
6
(No new model diagram drawn)
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
198
Group
Beginning II-D1
Ending II-D1
7
8
9
10
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
199
Group
Group Diagrams beginning Activity II-D3, Day 8
Beginning Diagram
Ending Diagram
1
No changes drawn
2
Each end of the arrow represents
different poles to the particle.
3
No diagram at the end
4
No change drawn
5
"We did not change our model. We
think that the nail is filled with iron
particles that when rubbed with the
magnet move, similar to the iron
fillings in test tube, to become polar
with all the north poles faced in one
direction."
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
200
6
No change drawn
7
No change drawn
8
9
No change drawn
10
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
201
Group Candidate Model Diagrams for Cycle II, Day 8
Group
Candidate Diagram
Description
1
Here, the units of force do not have directionality.
The north and south ends point in all directions.
Here, more but not all of the units of force have the
same directionality.
Here, all the units of force are pointed in the same
direction.
2
The unmagnetized object has iron particles that are
randomly distributed through out the object and are
not oriented in any particular direction.
The partially magnetized nail has particles that are
trying to align in the same direction, but have not
completely succeeded.
The fully magnetized object (nail) has iron particles
that are fully aligned.
3
Our picture shows how particles within the nail,
with north and south poles, are randomly distributed
with no specific orientation in an unmagnetized nail.
When the nail becomes partially magnetized, some
of the particles will take on a north - south
orientation, while some will remain unoriented.
A fully magnetized nail will have all the particles
with a north - south orientation.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
202
4
The first picture shows that the particles are
scattered with the north and south ends in no
particular alignment.
In a partially magnetized nail, the particles are
heading towards alignment but are not entirely
aligned.
In a fully magnetized nail each particle is aligned so
that all the souths are facing one end and all the
norths are facing the other
5
The nail is similar to the test tube in that it contains
very small iron particles scattered throughout it.
As in this example, when rubbed with the south end
of the magnet, the north end of the iron particles are
attracted and lifted towards the direction of the
magnet.
When fully magnetized, all the like poles of the iron
particles will face in the same direction. In this
example the nail has become a north point nail.
6
Each N and S represents an element that is inside the
nail. At this stage the elements are scattered
throughout the nail.
Since the nail is partially magnetized, most of the
elements are oriented in the same direction.
When the nail is fully magnetized, all of the
elements are oriented in the same direction.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
203
7
An unmagnetized magnetic object has north and
south poles all scrambled up, in different directions.
A partially magnetized magnetic object has some
poles aligned in the same orientation, but has others
which are still a little mixed up.
A fully magnetized magnetic object has all the poles
inside the object aligned in the same direction.
8
The unmagnetized nail has it's forces all scrambled
going in random directions in random order.
As the magnet distantly is passing by, it partially
lines up the poles causing the nail to attain some
magnetic force.
In order for the nail to be magnetized enough to
make an affect, the poles need to be completely lined
up facing their corresponding directions.
9
Each particle has a + and - charged side. In the
unmagnetized nail, the particles. are freely scattered
In the partially magnetized nail, some particles align
to the north and south poles, while others stay free
floating.
In the magnetized nail, the particles directly align to
the north and south poles.
o = particle
- = negative charge
+ = positive charge
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials
204
10
This is a representation of a model whose charges
scattered within each particle. There are north and
south poles inside.
This model represents the process of some of the
poles being charged and moving in the opposite
direction of the pole of the magnet. (some of the
particles will have more magnetic strength.)
This is a model of the fully magnetized nail (with the
north end of the magnet rubbing from head to tip)
causing the north poles of the nail pointing toward
the head.
Appendix 2 Student diagrams of magnetic materials