X-ray spectra of highly magnetized neutron stars in binary systems

... quantization of the kinetic energy of electrons in B-fields of the order of 1012 G. This means that the energy of the electrons can only have discrete values: multiples of the cyclotron energy, so called Landau levels. Since photons with EC = hν are (almost) instantly absorbed by an electron, they h ...

... quantization of the kinetic energy of electrons in B-fields of the order of 1012 G. This means that the energy of the electrons can only have discrete values: multiples of the cyclotron energy, so called Landau levels. Since photons with EC = hν are (almost) instantly absorbed by an electron, they h ...

Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space

... It follows that the second term in the expression for the net vector potential does not vanish upon application of the curl, which indicates that net vector potential cannot be eliminated at all points in space in any gauge, and is therefore non-trivial. We would like to note that in the current and ...

... It follows that the second term in the expression for the net vector potential does not vanish upon application of the curl, which indicates that net vector potential cannot be eliminated at all points in space in any gauge, and is therefore non-trivial. We would like to note that in the current and ...

magnetism - Supercharged Science

... Goggles: These should be worn when working with chemicals, heat, fire, or projectiles. These protect your eyes from chemical splatter, explosions, and tiny fast-moving objects aimed at the eyes. If you wear glasses, you can find goggles that fit over them. Don’t substitute eyeglasses for goggles, be ...

... Goggles: These should be worn when working with chemicals, heat, fire, or projectiles. These protect your eyes from chemical splatter, explosions, and tiny fast-moving objects aimed at the eyes. If you wear glasses, you can find goggles that fit over them. Don’t substitute eyeglasses for goggles, be ...

Chapter 2 - Viscosity of Fluids

... 2.3 Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids 2. Dilatant Fluids The plot of shear stress versus velocity gradient lies below the straight line for Newtonian fluids. The curve begins with a low slope, indicating a low apparent viscosity. Then, the slope increases with increasing velocity gradient. ...

... 2.3 Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids 2. Dilatant Fluids The plot of shear stress versus velocity gradient lies below the straight line for Newtonian fluids. The curve begins with a low slope, indicating a low apparent viscosity. Then, the slope increases with increasing velocity gradient. ...

An Anisotropic PML For Use With Biaxial Media

... conductor floating (Q = 0) or grounded. Unlike the case with the inner conductor grounded, the one with the floating inner conductor has an increased polarizability due to a penetration of the electric field through the floating conductor. In Fig. 6, we plot the normalized polarizabilities (z = 0d=2 ...

... conductor floating (Q = 0) or grounded. Unlike the case with the inner conductor grounded, the one with the floating inner conductor has an increased polarizability due to a penetration of the electric field through the floating conductor. In Fig. 6, we plot the normalized polarizabilities (z = 0d=2 ...

Kinetic theory of spatially inhomogeneous stellar systems without

... We review and complete the kinetic theory of spatially inhomogeneous stellar systems when collective eﬀects (dressing of the stars by their polarization cloud) are neglected. We start from the BBGKY hierarchy issued from the Liouville equation and consider an expansion in powers of 1/N in a proper t ...

... We review and complete the kinetic theory of spatially inhomogeneous stellar systems when collective eﬀects (dressing of the stars by their polarization cloud) are neglected. We start from the BBGKY hierarchy issued from the Liouville equation and consider an expansion in powers of 1/N in a proper t ...

Double relics in Abell 2345 and Abell 1240

... Abell 2345 shows a peculiar morphology and spectral index profile, which are diﬃcult to reconcile with present scenarios. We suggest a possible origin for this peculiar relic. Key words. galaxies: clusters: general – galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell 1240 – galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell ...

... Abell 2345 shows a peculiar morphology and spectral index profile, which are diﬃcult to reconcile with present scenarios. We suggest a possible origin for this peculiar relic. Key words. galaxies: clusters: general – galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell 1240 – galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell ...

PowerPoint Presentation - An Introduction to Differential Equations

... To a good approximation, then, liquids flow in an incompressible manner. In contrast, gases are highly compressible. However, there are situations in which the density of a flowing gas remains constant enough that the flow can be considered incompressible. ...

... To a good approximation, then, liquids flow in an incompressible manner. In contrast, gases are highly compressible. However, there are situations in which the density of a flowing gas remains constant enough that the flow can be considered incompressible. ...

Electromagnetic Properties of Neutrinos

... between the left-handed components of the three flavor neutrino fields νe , νμ , ντ and the lefthanded components of three massive neutrino fields νk with masses mk k 1, 2, 3. The 3 × 3 mixing matrix U is unitary U† U−1 . Neutrino electromagnetic properties are discussed in 4–7, and in the ...

... between the left-handed components of the three flavor neutrino fields νe , νμ , ντ and the lefthanded components of three massive neutrino fields νk with masses mk k 1, 2, 3. The 3 × 3 mixing matrix U is unitary U† U−1 . Neutrino electromagnetic properties are discussed in 4–7, and in the ...

bob_neutrino_EPS04

... problem. Neutrino interactions with matter are usually considered as non self-consistent single particle processes. We describe neutrino streaming instabilities within supernovæ plasmas, resulting in longitudinal and transverse waves using coupled kinetic equations for both neutrinos and plasma part ...

... problem. Neutrino interactions with matter are usually considered as non self-consistent single particle processes. We describe neutrino streaming instabilities within supernovæ plasmas, resulting in longitudinal and transverse waves using coupled kinetic equations for both neutrinos and plasma part ...

# Magnetohydrodynamics

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magneto fluid dynamics or hydromagnetics) is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids. Examples of such magneto-fluids include plasmas, liquid metals, and salt water or electrolytes. The word magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is derived from magneto- meaning magnetic field, hydro- meaning water, and -dynamics meaning movement. The field of MHD was initiated by Hannes Alfvén, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1970.The fundamental concept behind MHD is that magnetic fields can induce currents in a moving conductive fluid, which in turn polarizes the fluid and reciprocally changes the magnetic field itself. The set of equations that describe MHD are a combination of the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics and Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. These differential equations must be solved simultaneously, either analytically or numerically.