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Events in the Civil War Battle of Antietam The bloodiest day of the entire war! Union: Major General George B. McClellan Confederate: General Robert E. Lee Outcome: The result of the battle was inconclusive but the north did win a strategic advantage. 23,100 casualties. Significance of the Battle of Antietam: The Battle of Antietam forced the Confederate Army to retreat back across the Potomac River. President Lincoln saw the significance of this and issued the famous Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862. Writ of habeas corpus Was suspended by Lincoln It is a basic civil liberty protected by the Constitution. Court order directed to an officer to demonstrate to the court that the prisoner is being held for a good reason. Suspended in various parts of the country He could then imprison anyone who interfered with the war effort without having to justify his actions. 13,000 Americans who objected to federal policies were held in northern prisons without trial during the war. Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln issued that as of January 1, 1863, all enslaved people in the areas in open rebellion against the government would “be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” It had no immediate effect on enslaved people because they were still under southern control. But it was a promise that they would be free when the North won the WAR. Made slavery in the South a moral issue now. It encouraged enslaved African Americans in the South to set themselves free by moving to territory controlled by Union troops. African Americans and the War In the South, African American farm and plantation labor released white males for the war effort. Slaves performed many non-combat jobs in the Confederate army. Escaped slaves worked for the Union army in various jobs. They formed Union army regiments in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Kansas, serving in segregated units. Initially used for labor and guard duty, when allowed into battle they fought heroically. The 54th Massachusetts Infantry was the most famous unit. 180,000 African Americans served in Union armies, taking part in 200 battles. More than 38,00 died serving the Union. Life in the Military Wartime medicine Camp life • Disease was responsible for most deaths, and various epidemics swept through the camps. • Sanitary Commission worked to improve conditions. • Conditions were poor, tents were crowded, and the ground muddy or dusty depending on the weather. • Camp rations were good, but while on the march soldiers relied on hardtack and coffee. Prison camps • Prisoner exchanges ended in 1863, and both sides were guilty of inhumane treatment of prisoners. • Most notorious camps—Andersonville and Elmira Life on the Home Front Southern Home Front Confederate Draft Shortages made life difficult. Needed to maintain the army There were few factories, and food production dropped because of war. Confederate Congress enacted 1st military draft in American history—April 1862 War was fought on credit, and inflation resulted. Unpopular conscription contradicted states’ rights High prices and shortages led to food riots. Governors of Georgia and North Carolina tried to block the draft. Soldiers deserted to take care of their families. Slaveholders were exempted from the draft. Poor men were patriotic, but their Some areas were placed under families came first. martial law. Women in the Civil War Southern Women Northern Women Spied for the Confederacy Stepped into jobs so men could Took over farms, stores, and plantations Worked in the few factories and made ammunition for the troops Formed societies to make bandages, shirts and bedclothes Acted as volunteer nurses before Confederate Congress passed law allowing them to be hired as army nurses go fight Produced huge amounts of food with the aid of new farm equipment Female teachers went south to educate former slaves after the war Became the first women to hold federal clerical jobs Served in the Union army as nurses and volunteered to work in hospitals Three Major Battles Battle of Chancellorsville General Joseph Hooker was in command of Union army. Lee sent Stonewall Jackson in a surprise attack, nearly destroying the Union army on the first day. Battle was General Lee’s greatest victory, defeating a force twice its size. Lee determined to invade the North again, hoping a victory there would end the war. Lee marched north, and Lincoln replaced Hooker with General George Meade. Confederates on the lookout for a rumored shoe supply skirmished with Union cavalry. Both sides rushed troops to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The Battle of Gettysburg Overconfident after his great victory, Lee pushed his troops into battle here against the advice of James Longstreet. Half the men in Pickett’s Charge perished, and Lee finally gave up the fight and retreated back to Virginia. The Siege of Vicksburg General Grant began the Union siege of Vicksburg in May 1863. With constant shelling of the city, citizens were forced to dig into hillsides to try to escape the barrage. After forty-eight days, the city surrendered. Four days later the last Confederate fort on the Mississippi surrendered as well. Grant versus Lee General Ulysses S. Grant Lincoln gave him command of Union armies in March 1864, and Grant made William Tecumseh Sherman commander on the western front of the war. Grant wanted to take advantage of the Confederate shortages of men and supplies to end the war before the November election. Ordered Sherman to “get into the interior of the enemy’s country as far as you can and inflict all the damage you can against their war resources” General Robert E. Lee South could not win the war, but a new president might accept southern independence in return for peace. Lee planned to make the cost of fighting so high for the North that Lincoln would lose the upcoming election. Confederate Hopes Fade Democrats nominated George McClellan and adopted a party platform calling for an immediate end to the war. Southerners found new hope, but the Republicans tried to broaden Lincoln’s appeal by picking Tennessee’s Andrew Johnson for the ticket. Lincoln expected to lose the election. Sherman’s capture of Atlanta allowed Lincoln to easily defeat McClellan. Congress passed the 13th Amendment ending slavery, and the war seemed nearly over to all but die-hard secessionists. Lincoln announced his intention to be forgiving, but the bloody war continued. The War Comes to an End Sherman’s March After the election, Sherman marched across Georgia in what came to be known as the March to the Sea. Sherman cut a swath of destruction 300 miles long and 50–60 miles wide. After taking Savannah, Sherman turned north through South Carolina, destroying civilian property all along the way. The fall of Richmond Lee only had 35,000 defenders at Petersburg, and they were low on supplies. Grant decided not to wait for Sherman’s troops. Instead, he broke through Lee’s defenses at Petersburg and went on to take Richmond. Lee tried to escape with his few remaining troops, but Grant blocked their way. Surrender at Appomattox Lee and Grant With Union forces surrounding them, Lee decided to surrender. Grant presented the terms of the surrender to Lee. Extremely generous for such a bloody conflict, Lee’s troops merely had to turn over their weapons and leave. Grant announced, “The war is over. The rebels are our countrymen again.” The war is over News of Lee’s surrender brought joyful celebrations in the north. Lincoln requested “Dixie” be played at the White House. The last of the Confederate forces surrendered on May 26, 1865. Sadly, President Lincoln would not live to see the official end of the war.