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District Assessment Review Vocab terms you should know: Synthesize Gene expression Homeostasis Correlation Polypeptide Complementary Monomer Conversion Polymer Saccharide Semi-permeable Solute Solvent Homologous Cell Structure & Function • • • • • • • • • Cell Membrane Chloroplast Mitochondria Nucleus Ribosome Golgi apparatus Endoplasmic Reticulum Vacuole Lysosome Carbohydrates • Elements: C, H, O • Monomer: monosaccharides • Polymer: polysaccharides • Function: – Energy storage – Identification on surface of cell membrane Glucose Lipids • Elements: C, H, some O • Subunits: glycerol + fatty acids • Function: – Long term energy storage – Main part of cell membrane • hydrophobic Phospholipid Proteins • • • • Elements: C, H, O, N Monomer: amino acids Polymer: polypeptide (protein) Function: – Make reactions and cell processes happen – Build bones and muscle – fight disease Nucleic Acids • • • • Elements: C, H, O, N, P Monomer: nucleotides Polymer: DNA or RNA Function: - Carry genetic info Nucleotides Pyrimidines (DNA) Purines (DNA) ADP and ATP (Electron Carriers) ATP ADP Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Partially charged battery Energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Fully charged battery Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview Section 8-3 Water Chloroplast CO2 Chloroplast NADP+ ADP + P LightDependent Reactions Calvin Cycle ATP NADPH O2 Sugars Figure 9–2 Cellular Respiration: An Section 9-1 Overview Mitochondrion Electrons carried in NADH Pyruvic acid Glucose Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondrion Cytoplasm Section 9-2 Flowchart Cellular Respiration Glucose (C6H1206) + Oxygen (02) Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O) Comparing Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration • Cellular Respiration 6O2 + C6H12O6 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy • Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O + light→C6H12O6 + 6O2 Structure of the Cell Membrane Outside of cell Carbohydrate chains Proteins Lipid Bilayer Transport Protein Phospholipids Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Go to Section: Homeostasis Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal state within an organism. Examples of homeostasis in our bodies are: Regulation of water content Regulation of body temperature Regulation of blood glucose levels Types of Cellular Transport • Passive Transport cell doesn’t use energy 1. Diffusion 2. Facilitated Diffusion 3. Osmosis • Weeee!!! high low Active Transport cell does use energy 1. Protein Pumps 2. Endocytosis 3. Exocytosis This is gonna be hard work!! high low Passive Transport: 1. Diffusion Simple Diffusion Animation 1. Diffusion: random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. (High to Low) • Diffusion continues until all molecules are evenly spaced (equilibrium is reached)-Note: molecules will still move around but stay spread out. http://bio.winona.edu/berg/Free.htm Passive Transport: 2. Facilitated Diffusion 2. Facilitated diffusion: diffusion of specific particles through transport proteins found in the membrane a. Transport Proteins are specific – they “select” only certain molecules to cross the membrane b.Transports larger or charged molecules A B Facilitated diffusion (Channel Protein) Diffusion (Lipid Bilayer) Carrier Protein Passive Transport: 3. Osmosis Osmosis animation • 3.Osmosis: diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane • Water moves from high to low concentrations •Water moves freely through pores. •Solute (green) to large to move across. Types of Active Transport 1. Protein Pumps transport proteins that require energy to do work •Example: Sodium / Potassium Pumps are important in nerve responses. Sodium Potassium Pumps (Active Transport using proteins) Protein changes shape to move molecules: this requires energy! What type of solution are these cells in? A B C Hypertonic Isotonic Hypotonic Location & Structure of DNA • Location: – in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. – In the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells. • Structure: – Double stranded (double helix) – Composed of 3 part nucleotides: • Deoxyribose (5 carbon sugar) • Phosphate group (PO4) • Note: The two alternate S-P-S-P with the nitrogen bases always lined up on the Sugars (deoxyribose) • Nitrogen base (1 of 4) – – – – Adenine (A) – purine Guanine (G) - purine Thymine (T) – pyrimidine Cytosine (C) - pyrimidine DNA Replication Can you write the corresponding Nitrogen Base? 1. GAC TAT ATT GAC ATT GAG CCC TTA 2. ATA GAG CAC GCA TAT CCG AGT TAT Location & Structure of RNA • Location: – In the nucleus – Cytoplasm – Ribosome • Structure: – Single Strand – Nucleotides composed of: • Ribose (5-carbon sugar) • Phosphate group • Nitrogen bases: – – – – – Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) Uracil (U) RNA does not contain thymine but has uracil Translation Gene Mutations • Produce changes in a single cell. • Types: – Point mutations – involves changes in one or a few nucleotides and occur at a single point in the DNA sequence. • Substitutions – one base is changed to another; only affects a single amino acid. • Insertions & Deletions– a base is inserted or removed from the DNA sequence; much more dramatic because the genetic code is read in 3-base codons. – Frameshift mutations – the shifting of codons & the “reading frame” which may change every amino acid that follows the point of the mutation. It can alter a protein so much that it is unable to perform its normal functions. G0 Overview of Mitosis Parent Cell=2n (diploid) Daughter cell= 2n Daughter cell= 2n (diploid) (diploid) Meiosis: Overview Parent Cell: diploid= 2n After Meiosis I After Meiosis II Daughter Cells: Haploid= n ; and all genetically different from each other and parent cell 1/21 Organic Compounds 18. Which of these best represents a fatty acid molecule? 1/21 Organic Compounds 20. Based on the results of a series of experiments, Joshua created the table to summarize some of the characteristics of the chemicals needed for life. From this information, it can be inferred that nucleic acids ___. A. B. C. D. are larger molecules than proteins. are necessary for a cell to make proteins from amino acids. do not mix with water. can be used by cells as an energy source. 1/23 Organic Compounds 21. What term best completes this analogy? Nucleotide is to nucleic acid as ______ is to protein. A. B. C. D. DNA Glycerol Amino acid Carbohydrate 1/23 Organic Compounds 22. Which structural formula represents a polysaccharide? A. C. 1 4 B. D. 2 5 1/27 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration 28. The energy used to obtain, transfer, and transport materials within an organism comes directly from A. ATP B. DNA C. Sunlight D. starch 1/27 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration 30. Which of the following correctly describes how a diagram of cellular respiration would differ from a diagram of photosynthesis? F The cellular-respiration diagram would show electromagnetic waves as the final product. G The cellular-respiration diagram would show glucose as the main source of energy. H The cellular-respiration diagram would show energy stored in large protein molecules. J The cellular-respiration diagram would show water as the main source of chemical energy. 1/29 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration 31. 1/31 Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis 1/31 Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis 39. During the process of transcription, the strand of messenger RNA shown below is produced. mRNA AACUUAGGACAU What was the original DNA template that produced this strand? A TTCTTAGGACAT B UUGTTUCCUGUT C UUGAAUCCUGUA D TTGAATCCTGTA 2/5 Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis 47. A codon chart is shown below. Which of these changes to the DNA triplet 3’ GCT 5’ will affect the protein produced? A GTT C TCC B TCT D GCA 2/5 Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis 49. How does DNA in cells determine an organism’s complex traits? A DNA contains codes for proteins, which are necessary for the growth and functioning of an organism. B DNA separates into long single strands that make up each part of an organism. C DNA produces the energy an organism needs in order to grow. D DNA folds into the nucleus of each of the cells of an organism. 2/7 Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis 51. The main function of this process is to A provide an exact copy of the genetic code B ensure genetic variation in a species C synthesize cellular proteins D produce antibodies to combat disease 2/7 Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis 52. What does gene expression control? A the proteins that are made by the cell B the rate at which DNA replication occurs C the duration between cell cycles D the division of the cell nucleus 2/11 Cell Reproduction 55. Part of a process necessary for reproduction in complex organisms is represented Step C results in the production of A. four zygotes that will develop into embryos B. embryonic cells that could unite and develop into an organism C. four cells that will recombine to form two offspring D. gametes that could be involved in the formation of a zygote 2/11 Cell Reproduction 56. Which sequence best represents sexual reproduction? A. mitosis → gametes → zygote → fertilization B. gametes →meiosis →mitosis →fertilization C. fertilization → gametes → meiosis → zygote D. meiosis → gametes → fertilization → zygote 2/11 Cell Reproduction 59. Which of these statements best explains why meiosis is important for sexual reproduction? A By involving two cell divisions, meiosis ensures that offspring receive half their genetic information from each parent. B By involving a single cell division, meiosis ensures that offspring are genetically identical to each other and to the parents. C Meiosis occurs in those cells that have already undergone DNA replication. D During meiosis, sister chromatids, which are genetically different from each other, line up along the center of the cell, and then separate into two cells. 2/13 Cell Reproduction 60. The diagram to the right represents the cell cycle. When cells leave the cell cycle, they exit during G1 phase and then enter G0 phase, a resting period. Most normal cells can leave G0 phase and reenter the cell cycle at G1 phase before entering S phase. Cancer cells are different because they cannot enter G0 phase and are likely to do which of the following? A B C D Fail to complete S phase Mutate during G1 phase Repeat the cell cycle continuously Die after completing mitosis 1 2/13 Cell Reproduction 61. The diagram below shows four stages of a cell undergoing mitosis. Which of the following is the correct sequence of stages as they occur in the cell cycle? A 1, 3, 4, 2 B 2, 1, 3, 4 C 2, 4, 3, 1 D 4, 3, 2, 1 2/13 Cell Reproduction 64. Which of these must occur during S phase of the cell cycle so that two daughter cells can be produced during M phase? A The DNA must be replicated. B The chromosomes must be joined. C The cytoplasm must be separated. D The cell membrane must be expanded.