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Transcript
Motivation and Emotion
Motivation – a need or desire that energizes
and directs behavior
5 Theories of Motivation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Instinct Theory
Click on the fish to watch it’s
instinctual behavior.
• Instinct Theory –
genetically
predisposed
(unlearned)
behaviors
• Example:
Drive Reduction Theory
• Drive Reduction Theory - physiological
need creates a drive (state of tension)
that motivates us to satisfy the need
• Need • Drive –need
• Key Ideas
• Our behavior is motivated by
BIOLOGICAL NEEDS.
• Goal is Homeostasis -
Primary versus Secondary
drives
• Primary drives –
innate
– Examples:
• Secondary drives –
drives learned by
conditioning
– Example:
Incentive Theory
Incentives - positive or negative
environmental stimulus that lure or repel
us •Incentive theory acts when an external stimulus pulls you in a
certain direction
•Drive theory acts by an internal state pushing you in a specific
direction.
Arousal Theory
• We are motivated to seek an
optimum level of arousal.
• Yerkes-Dodson Law –
Humanistic Theory of
Motivation
• Maslow’s Hierarchy
of Needs
– Abraham Maslow said
we are motivated by
needs, and all needs
are not created equal.
– Driven to satisfy the
lower level needs first.
Motivation of HUNGER
Ancel Keys study on conscientious objectors
Physiology of Hunger
• Washburn’s studies
showed hunger was
partially related to
the stomach.
• But those with their
stomachs removed
still feel hunger.
Biological Basis of Hunger
• Hunger does NOT
come from our
stomach.
It comes from our…
What part of the
brain?
Hypothalamus
Lateral Hypothalamus
• Brings on hunger by
(hunger arousing hormone)
• When stimulated it makes
you hungry.
• When lesioned (destroyed)
you will never be hungry
again.
Ventromedial Hypothalamus
• When stimulated you
feel full.
• When lesioned you will
never feel full again and
become …
How Hypothalamus works: Two
Theories
Leptin
•
• Hypothalamus senses
rises in leptin and
will curb eating and
increase activity.
Set Point
• Hypothalamus acts like a
thermostat to
•
• Lateral or ventromedial
hypothalamus activated as
needed
• Examples:
Body Chemistry and the Brain
• Appetite hormones
– Ghrelin –
– Obestatin –
– PYY –
– Leptin –
Body Chemistry
• Glucose
• The hormone
converts glucose to
fat.
• When glucose levels
drop- hunger
increases.
Psychology of Hunger
Memory
•
• Desire to be thin
•
Dog
Taste Preferences: Biology and Culture
•Biological
•Cultural
Fried Frog Legs
•Psychological
Mice Wine
Ecology of Eating
• Social Facilitation –
when we’re around
others we eat more
– Example:
• Unit Bias – We eat
more served in
larger portion sizes
– Example:
Eating Disorders
Bulimia Nervosa
• Characterized by
Binge-eating disorder –
spurts of excessive
overeating followed by
Anorexia Nervosa
•
•
•
•
•
Starve themselves to below
See themselves as.
Vast majority
Parents are
Live in cultures where
Click on the
woman to watch a
case study of an
anorexic.
Body Image
Obesity and Weight Control
• Historical Reasons:
–
– In developed nations
old rule is
dysfunctional
• Obesity =
• Life expectancy
Obesity
Obesity
The Social Effects of Obesity
• Weight discrimination
• Psychological effects of obesity
– 25% increase in
The Physiology of Obesity
• Fat Cells
– Typical adult
– Obese –
•
Genetics & Obesity
–Body weights resemble
–Gene
–
• +.74 correlation
–Obese parents =
Environmental Factors &
Obesity
–Sleep loss
•
–Social influence
• Obese friends =
–Food consumption and
activity level
•
Losing Weight
• Realistic and moderate goals
• Minimize exposure to tempting
foods
• Don’t starve all day
• Attitudinal changes
Sexual Motivation
• Interplay of internal
and external Stimuli
• Genes way of
• 2 important studies
contributed to our
knowledge of sexual
motivation
–
Kinsey’s Studies
• Confidential
interviews with 18,000
people (in early
1950’s).
• Sexual Behavior in
the Human Male and
Sexual Behavior in
the Human Female
• Scale of sexuality….0
to 6 where 0 is
exclusively
Click on Kinsey to see the movie
trailer.
Masters and Johnson Study
• William Masters and
Virginia Johnson
(1960s) set out to
explore the
physiology of sex.
• 382 females and 312
males.
After their
research was
done they ran
an institute
that claimed to
turn gay people
straight.
Click on Masters and Johnson to see a more detailed explanation of
their research.
Sexual Response Cycle
4 stages of sexual responding
•
•
•
•
– Includes refractory
period –
Hormones and Sexual Behavior
• Effects of hormones
– Development of
– Activate
• Estrogen
– sex hormones secreted in
amounts by
–
sex characteristics
– In nonhuman females
• Testosterone
– Sex hormones secreted in
amounts
by males
–
sex characteristics in fetus and
puberty
Psychological Factors in Sexual
Motivation
• Only some people are
externals when it
comes to hungerbut we are all
externals when it
comes to sex.
• Imagined stimuli
•
•
Levels of Analysis for Sexual
Motivation
Teen Pregnancy
•
•
•
•
•
Sexually Transmitted Infections
• Statistics of STIs
• Teen abstinence
–
–
–
–
Sexual Orientation
•Sexual Orientation - An enduring sexual
attraction toward members of either one's own
gender or the other gender.
•
•
•Sexual orientation statistics –
•Erotic plasticity –
How is Sexual Orientation
Determined
• There has been
evidence that sexuality is
.
• Kids raised by
parents are no more
likely to be
that
if they were raised by
parents.
• Indicates it is likely
The Brain
• Simon LeVay - cluster of
cells in
• Right hemisphere
•
Fraternal Birth Order Effect
• men who have
brothers
• Blanchard study –
– preventing fetus brain from
developing in male-typical pattern.
Prenatal Environment
• Hormonal levels in the
prenatal environment
– elevated rates of homosexual
orientation
– exposure to hormone levels
typical for
– Fingerprint ridges are
in right hand than left in
heterosexual males
Genes
Genes – homosexuality
does run in families
–
more likely to share a
homosexual
orientation
– Studies on female
fruit-flies –
determines sexual
orientation and
behavior
The Need to Belong
• Aiding survival
• Wanting to belong
• Sustaining
relationships
• The pain of
ostracism
–ostracism
Achievement Motivation
What motivates us to work?
(School, job, sports, video games, relationships etc..)
Intrinsic Motivators
• Rewards we get
, such as
Extrinsic Motivators
• Reward that we get for
accomplishments from
ourselves
• Work great in the short
run.
Management Theory
Management/Teaching styles relate closely to Intrinsic/Extrinsic
Motivators.
Theory X
• Managers believes that
employees will work only if
Theory Y
• Managers believe that
employees are
• Think employees are
• Only interested in Maslow’s
lower needs.
• Interested in Maslow’s
higher needs.
When Motives Conflict
• approach-approach conflict
• avoidance-avoidance conflict
• approach-avoidance conflict
• Multiple approach-avoidance
conflicts