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1. the rate at which the body converts stored energy into working energy
2. Any 3 of: body size (larger, higher); physical activity (more active, higher); sex (males
higher); age (older, lower); hereditary factors (higher or lower)
3. ingestion, digestion, absorption, egestion
4. amylase; starts digestion of starch
5. -cells in the alimentary call can be organized into highly specialized organs for digestion
-more efficient at digesting foods & absorbing nutrients
6. bolus; chyme
7. -mouth: teeth chew food
-stomach: muscles contract frequently to break apart food
-small intestine: bile emulsifies fat
8. peristalsis (rhythmic contractions of muscles)
9. carbohydrates, proteins, lipids (fats), vitamins & minerals
10. villi & microvilli
11. mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
12. liver, pancreas, gall bladder, salivary glands...
13. sphincters (gastroesophageal sphincter and pyloric sphincter)
14. mucus: protects the lining of the stomach from acid & enzymes
hydrocholoric acid: kills pathogens, activates pepsinogen
pepsinogen: when activated, digests proteins
15. a lesion or open sore in the lining of the stomach; usually caused by a species of bacteria
16. the abdominal muscles & the diaphragm
17. bicarbonate ions
18. -prosecretin (is converted into secretin and signals the pancreas)
-enterokinase (converts trypsinogen to trypsin)
-erepsins (protein-digesting enzymes)
-bicarbonate ions
-pancreatic lipases (break down fats)
19. 2.5 cm in diameter * up to 7 metres long
duodenum is about 25-30 cm long
20. jejunum & ileum; absorption of nutrients occurs here
21. bile is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder