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Transcript
Review for Evolution Test
1. What is a vestigial structure? Give an example of it.
A structure that is no longer functional but may have been used by similar ancestral
species; ex-tailbone, leg bones in whales
2. What are the 4 evidences of evolution according to our notes/book?
Biogeography, embryology, DNA sequences, fossil record, homologous structure
3. Define homologous, analogous, and vestigial structures. Give an example of each.
Homologous-similar structures between closely related organisms, may have
different functions; ex-horse leg and dog leg
Analogous-structures that have a similar function but different structure; ex-butterfly
wings and bird wings
Vestigial structure-structures that no longer have a function; ex-appendix
4. What is unique about a species?
They can reproduce within the species and produce fertile offspring
5. Define these terms: variation, adaptation, fitness. Give an example of each.
Variation-differences in traits among individuals within a population
Adaptation-inherited traits that help an organism better survive in its environment
Fitness-how well an organism is adapted to its environment
6. Describe the theory of common ancestors.
All life descended from one common ancestor, but many branches developed from
that common ancestor over time
7. What does the theory of Natural selection state?
There will be competition within a species for resources and the fittest or best
adapted organisms will survive to reproduce and pass on their traits
8. What is artificial selection? Give an example of it.
Humans selecting which traits are best and breeding those organisms; ex-dog
breeding
9. The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce is called:
Fitness
10. What is genetic drift? In which type of populations does genetic drift usually occur?
Random change in allele frequency; small populations
11. What is behavioral isolation? Give an example.
Members of a population becoming isolated from each other due to different
behaviors; ex-bird mating dances
12. What is temporal isolation? Give an example.
Members of a population becoming isolated from each other due to reproducing at
different times; ex-different species of frogs reproduce at different times of the year
13. What is geographic isolation? Give an example.
Members of a population becoming isolated from each other due to being physically
separated by a mountain or river; ex-squirrels developing into different species
because of separation by a river
14. What is a gene pool? Give an example.
All of the alleles present within a population
15. What is adaptation? Give an example.
An inherited trait that helps an organism better survive in its environemnt
16. What is the difference between mimicry and camouflage? Give an example of each.
Mimicry-copying the appearance of another species that is usually poisonous,
provides protection for the species that is not poisonous; ex-monarch and viceroy
butterflies
Camouflage-blending into the environment to avoid predators; ex-green
grasshoppers blending in to green grass
17. What is a mutation?
Random changes in DNA that can lead to variation within a species
18. What is relative frequency? Give an example.
The number of times a particular allele shows up within a population; ex-the number
of recessive alleles in a population of students
19. Make a chart comparing Directional Selection, Stabilizing Selection, and Disruptive
Selection, including definition, diagram and examples of each.
See notes
20. What is the difference between relative and radioactive dating? Give an example of
each.
Relative-comparing the age of one fossil to another based on its location in the
ground; ex-younger fossils will be closer to the surface than older fossils
Radioactive dating-the exact age of a fossil based on carbon decay