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Empires of Mesopotamia New Vocabulary Empire – many territories and peoples controlled by ________________________ Babylon – the _______________ of Babylonia; a city of great wealth and luxury Caravan – a group of ___________________ journeying ____________________ Bazaar – a _____________ selling different kinds of ______________ In the Beginning • __________________ the 1st was the ruler of _____________________. • He set out and conquered the ____________________________________. • By ruling more than one city-state he creates the first ___________________. • The conquered city-states now _____________ Akkadian, but the Akkadians _________________________________________. • However, after 200 years the Akkadian Empire grew __________. Cities in Mesopotamia ________________ for their ____________________. • ________________________, an Amorite, or Old Babylonian, reigned from 1792-1750 BCE. Babylon and King Hammurabi Hammurabi was the __________ of Babylon. He _____________ the cities of Sumer and then ___________________ his empire. The Babylonian people created a ___________________ supported by a system of taxation to ________________ for running the government. ___________________________ traveled throughout the empire collecting tax money from citizens. A Crossroads of Trade Babylon became rich due to __________. Caravans, traveled back and forth from the Sumerian cities in the south to the city of Akkad in the north. Along the way, they always stopped in _______________ to ____________. ________________ were built throughout the empire which made ___________________________ and encouraged trade. Babylon had special markets, called _______________, that people could go to and buy cotton cloth from India. They could also buy spices from Egypt there. Hammurabi’s Code Hammurabi was the king who united most of Mesopotamia and conquered the Sumerians. Hammurabi developed a __________________________________ for his people to follow in 1790 BC. A total of 282 laws form the Hammurabi’s Code. Law number 196 states: If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out. Some people summarize Hammurabi’s code by saying, _________________________________________ Hammurabi’s Code provided that the ____________________ should be similar to the __________________. Under this principle, breaking another person’s arm in anger is punished by having your own arm broken. For certain crimes people could be put to death. Many laws _________________ lawbreakers of what to expect. A person who _________________ broke the law was just as guilty as someone who ______________ to break the law. The code was carved into stone and placed in _____________________ for all to see. The laws were meant to serve as a lasting way to ______________________ and prevent troubles in the future. If any one steal the minor son of another, he shall be put to death. If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death. If any one open his ditches to water his crop, but is careless, and the water flood the field of his neighbor, then he shall pay his neighbor for his loss. If a surgeon causes the death of his patient, his hand shall be cut off. If a son strike his father, his hand shall be cut off. Babylonia is Conquered Hammurabi _____________________ many neighboring cities, and he kept expanding his empire. Hammurabi would often go to war against his _______________ (friends) as well. When the city of Elam attacked Larsa, Hammurabi helped Larsa defend themselves. Once Elam was conquered, Hammurabi turned right around and conquered Larsa! Each time that Babylon would conquer another city, Hammurabi would take the city’s _________________________________________________. Trading helped Babylon get rich, and so did conquest. Though Hammurabi formed a large and rich empire, the people that ruled after him could not keep it together. The empire kept getting smaller and smaller until eventually it was destroyed. The Assyrians Rise to Power Assyria was a small kingdom of walled cities that was located north of Babylon. Their city was located in open land that was easily _____________, and they had to constantly defend themselves against invaders. They became skilled _______________. At around 1365 B.C., the Assyrians decided that the best _________________ they had was to _______________ other countries first, before they could attack them. By 650 B.C., Assyria had conquered a large empire. King Sargon II was a successful and _____________ Assyrian ruler. The Assyrian War Machine The Assyrians were ____________at waging war. They invented the _______________________, which they used to pound down city walls. They used _____________________ to throw rocks at enemies, and they protected their archers with helmets and armor. _______________________ were used to slash their way through enemy troops. Assyrian Learning The capital of the Assyrian Empire was a city called ________________. Nineveh became a great city of _____________. It had a famous library that held thousands of clay tablets with writings from Sumer and Babylon. These __________________ tell us a lot about life in Mesopotamia. Assyria Overthrown The people that the Assyrians conquered were constantly ___________________ against Assyrian rule. Most of the time, the ___________________ crushed the people who tried to fight them. However, in 612 B.C., the ______________________________ joined together to smash the Assyrian empire. The New Babylonian Empire The Chaldeans created a new empire, centered at ____________________ after they defeated the Assyrians in 612 BC. The greatest king of Babylon was ______________________________. He rebuilt Babylon and put massive walls around the city to protect it. He also built a great palace with _____________________________. A New Center for Learning Under the _____________________, the New Babylonian empire became a center of ________________ and ___________________. Chaldean __________________charted stars and measured the correct length of the year. Chaldean ______________________ for their honey. Many people came to Babylon to share ideas and discoveries. The Fall of the Second Babylonian Empire The second Babylonian empire came under attack and was defeated by the ________________, who were led by Cyrus the Great, in 539 BC. The Persians built the largest empire the ____________________ has ever known.