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Empires of Mesopotamia
New Vocabulary
Empire – many territories and peoples controlled by ________________________
Babylon – the _______________ of Babylonia; a city of great wealth and luxury
Caravan – a group of ___________________ journeying ____________________
Bazaar – a _____________ selling different kinds of ______________
In the Beginning
• __________________ the 1st was the ruler of _____________________.
• He set out and conquered the ____________________________________.
• By ruling more than one city-state he creates the first
• The conquered city-states now _____________ Akkadian, but the
Akkadians _________________________________________.
• However, after 200 years the Akkadian Empire grew __________. Cities in
Mesopotamia ________________ for their ____________________.
• ________________________, an Amorite, or Old Babylonian, reigned from
1792-1750 BCE.
Babylon and King Hammurabi
 Hammurabi was the __________ of Babylon. He _____________ the cities
of Sumer and then ___________________ his empire.
 The Babylonian people created a ___________________ supported by a
system of taxation to ________________ for running the government.
 ___________________________ traveled throughout the empire collecting
tax money from citizens.
A Crossroads of Trade
 Babylon became rich due to __________. Caravans, traveled back and
forth from the Sumerian cities in the south to the city of Akkad in the north.
Along the way, they always stopped in _______________ to ____________.
 ________________ were built throughout the empire which made
___________________________ and encouraged trade.
 Babylon had special markets, called _______________, that people could
go to and buy cotton cloth from India. They could also buy spices from
Egypt there.
Hammurabi’s Code
 Hammurabi was the king who united most of Mesopotamia and
conquered the Sumerians. Hammurabi developed a
__________________________________ for his people to follow in
1790 BC.
 A total of 282 laws form the Hammurabi’s Code. Law number 196
states: If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.
Some people summarize Hammurabi’s code by saying,
 Hammurabi’s Code provided that the ____________________ should be
similar to the __________________. Under this principle, breaking
another person’s arm in anger is punished by having your own arm
 For certain crimes people could be put to death. Many laws
_________________ lawbreakers of what to expect.
 A person who _________________ broke the law was just as guilty as
someone who ______________ to break the law.
 The code was carved into stone and placed in _____________________
for all to see. The laws were meant to serve as a lasting way to
______________________ and prevent troubles in the future.
 If any one steal the minor son of another, he shall be put to death.
 If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to
 If any one open his ditches to water his crop, but is careless, and the
water flood the field of his neighbor, then he shall pay his neighbor for
his loss.
 If a surgeon causes the death of his patient, his hand shall be cut off.
 If a son strike his father, his hand shall be cut off.
Babylonia is Conquered
 Hammurabi _____________________ many neighboring cities, and he kept
expanding his empire.
 Hammurabi would often go to war against his _______________ (friends)
as well.
 When the city of Elam attacked Larsa, Hammurabi helped Larsa defend
 Once Elam was conquered, Hammurabi turned right around and conquered
 Each time that Babylon would conquer another city, Hammurabi would
take the city’s _________________________________________________.
 Trading helped Babylon get rich, and so did conquest.
 Though Hammurabi formed a large and rich empire, the people that ruled
after him could not keep it together.
 The empire kept getting smaller and smaller until eventually it was
The Assyrians Rise to Power
 Assyria was a small kingdom of walled cities that was located north of
Babylon. Their city was located in open land that was easily
_____________, and they had to constantly defend themselves against
 They became skilled _______________. At around 1365 B.C., the Assyrians
decided that the best _________________ they had was to
_______________ other countries first, before they could attack them.
 By 650 B.C., Assyria had conquered a large empire. King Sargon II was a
successful and _____________ Assyrian ruler.
The Assyrian War Machine
 The Assyrians were ____________at waging war. They invented the
_______________________, which they used to pound down city walls.
 They used _____________________ to throw rocks at enemies, and they
protected their archers with helmets and armor.
 _______________________ were used to slash their way through enemy
Assyrian Learning
 The capital of the Assyrian Empire was a city called ________________.
 Nineveh became a great city of _____________. It had a famous library
that held thousands of clay tablets with writings from Sumer and Babylon.
 These __________________ tell us a lot about life in Mesopotamia.
Assyria Overthrown
 The people that the Assyrians conquered were constantly
___________________ against Assyrian rule.
 Most of the time, the ___________________ crushed the people who tried
to fight them.
 However, in 612 B.C., the ______________________________ joined
together to smash the Assyrian empire.
The New Babylonian Empire
 The Chaldeans created a new empire, centered at ____________________
after they defeated the Assyrians in 612 BC.
 The greatest king of Babylon was ______________________________.
 He rebuilt Babylon and put massive walls around the city to protect it. He
also built a great palace with _____________________________.
A New Center for Learning
 Under the _____________________, the New Babylonian empire became a
center of ________________ and ___________________.
 Chaldean __________________charted stars and measured the correct
length of the year.
 Chaldean ______________________ for their honey. Many people came to
Babylon to share ideas and discoveries.
The Fall of the Second Babylonian Empire
 The second Babylonian empire came under attack and was defeated by the
________________, who were led by Cyrus the Great, in 539 BC.
 The Persians built the largest empire the ____________________ has ever