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Fertile Crescent
An arc of land that provided some of the best
farming in Southwest Asia.
The word in Greek means “land between the
Each city and the surrounding land it
A family of rulers.
Cultural Diffusion
The process in which a new idea or a product
spreads from one culture to another.
The belief in more than one god.
An empire brings together several peoples,
nations, or previously independent states
under the control of one ruler.
Babylonian emperor.
Which of the problems you listed
required the most complex solution?
Sample Answer: !
Problems—Floods/climate, no natural barriers,
limited resources. !
Solutions—Irrigation ditches, walled cities, trade
with other groups.
What were the three environmental
challenges to Sumerians?
1. Unpredictable floods with a dry climate.!
2. Few natural defenses.!
3. Few natural resources !
What role did irrigation systems play in the
development of civilizations?!
They allowed farmers to produce food
surpluses, freeing some villagers to pursue
other jobs and skills. !
How did the Sumerians view the gods?
They saw them as immortal and all-powerful
and ready to punish them at any time.
What areas of life did Hammurabi’s Code
Family relations, business conduct, and crime .
How was Sumerian culture spread
throughout Mesopotamia?
Sargon of Akkad spread the culture through
his conquests and the building of an empire.
Why is the development of a written code of
laws important to a society?
It reinforced the role of government in society
and clearly established uniform laws and
penalties for crimes.
How did the need to interact with the
environment lead to advances in civilization?
It led to the development of technology to
solve problems and organization to implement
What advantages did living in cities offer the
people of ancient Mesopotamia?!
Do modern cities offer any of the same