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Fertile Crescent An arc of land that provided some of the best farming in Southwest Asia. Mesopotamia The word in Greek means “land between the rivers.” City-state Each city and the surrounding land it controlled. Dynasty A family of rulers. Cultural Diffusion The process in which a new idea or a product spreads from one culture to another. Polytheism The belief in more than one god. Empire An empire brings together several peoples, nations, or previously independent states under the control of one ruler. Hammurabi Babylonian emperor. Which of the problems you listed required the most complex solution? Explain. Sample Answer: ! ! Problems—Floods/climate, no natural barriers, limited resources. ! ! Solutions—Irrigation ditches, walled cities, trade with other groups. What were the three environmental challenges to Sumerians? 1. Unpredictable floods with a dry climate.! 2. Few natural defenses.! 3. Few natural resources ! What role did irrigation systems play in the development of civilizations?! They allowed farmers to produce food surpluses, freeing some villagers to pursue other jobs and skills. ! How did the Sumerians view the gods? They saw them as immortal and all-powerful and ready to punish them at any time. What areas of life did Hammurabi’s Code cover? Family relations, business conduct, and crime . How was Sumerian culture spread throughout Mesopotamia? Sargon of Akkad spread the culture through his conquests and the building of an empire. Why is the development of a written code of laws important to a society? It reinforced the role of government in society and clearly established uniform laws and penalties for crimes. How did the need to interact with the environment lead to advances in civilization? It led to the development of technology to solve problems and organization to implement solutions. What advantages did living in cities offer the people of ancient Mesopotamia?! ! Do modern cities offer any of the same advantages?