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Name _____________________________ Cumulative Study Guide – Social Studies 6th Grade Mrs. Hawthorne’s Class CIVILIZATION: FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY 1. MOVEMENT – People and Ideas Get Around The first civilizations developed in river valleys. 2. REGIONS – What do locations have in common? The area called Mesopotamia is in a region called the Fertile Crescent. This is a curving strip of good farmland in the Middle East. 3. LOCATION – Tells you where it is Mesopotamia means “the land between the rivers,” in Greek. (Tigris and Euphrates) 4. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HUMANS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT - What do the people do to the environment? What does the environment do for the people? Farmers used water to irrigate their fields. The rivers would flood and deposit silt, small particles of soil, that are good for farming. 5. PLACE – What is it like when you get there? Sumerians invented cuneiform, a system of writing that used wedge-shaped marks in soft clay. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are known as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. ECONOMY – Rivers encouraged travel which led to trade routes. Surplus of food allowed for specialization and a market economy. Babylon became rich from trade because it was located on a major trade route between the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf. (See page 74-75.) GOVERNMENT – Monarchy – King or Queen In several areas of the Mesopotamia Region the monarch controlled the storage of grain. (Command Economy) KEY HISTORICAL FIGURE(S) – The Babylonian King, Hammurabi, is best known for creating a set of laws. Known as Hammurabi’s Code, it was very strict but protected the less powerful. (eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth) The Chaldean king who rebuilt Babylon was Nebuchadnezzar. RELIGION Polytheism – The belief in many gods. MISC – Sumerians were the first to use the wheel! The calendar created by Sumerians was based on the cycle of the moon. The Hittites taught the Assyrians how to use stronger metals for weapons. (Iron) Timeline Around 3000 BC River Valley Civilizations emerge including the city-state of Sumer 2400 BC Sumer was taken over by King Sargon who combined many territories creating an empire 1800 BC The Amorites conquer this area and create the grand city of Babylon (King Hammurabi) 800 BC Assyrians take over the region 612 BC The Chaldeans defeated Assyria. 539 BC The Persians captured Babylon.