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Hinduism is a vast and philosophical religion. It worships One Supreme Reality [called by many
names] and teaches that all souls ultimately realise Truth. There is no eternal hell, no
damnation. It accepts all genuine spiritual paths -- from pure Monism ["God alone exists"] to
theistic dualism [:when shall I know His Grace?"]. Each soul is free to find his own way, whether
by devotion, self-discipline, meditation [Yoga] or selfless service. Stress is placed on temple
worship, scriptures and the guru-disciple tradition. Festivals, pilgrimages, chanting of holy hymns
and home worship are active practices. Love, nonviolence, good conduct and the law of dharma
defines the Hindu path. Hinduism explains that the soul reincarnates until all Karmas are
resolved and God realization is attained. The magnificent holy temples, the peaceful godliness of
the home, the subtle metaphysics and the science of Yoga all play their part. Hinduism is a
mystical religion, leading the devotee to personally experience the Truth within, finally reaching
the pinnacle of consciousness where man and God are one.
Key Hindu Beliefs (taken from :
1. I believe in a one, all-pervasive Supreme Being who is both immanent and transcedent,
both Creator and imperceptible reality.
2. I believe that the universe undergoes endless cycles of creation, preservation and
3. I believe that all souls are evolving towards union with God and will ultimately find
moksha: spiritual knowledge and liberation from cycle of rebirth. Not a single soul will be
eternally deprived of this destiny.
4. I believe in karma, the law of cause and effect by which each individual creates his own
destiny by thoughts, words and deeds.
5. I believe that the soul reincarnates, evolving through many births until all karmas have
been resolved.
6. I believe that divine beings exist in unseen worlds and that temple worship, rituals,
sacraments as well as personal devotionals create a communion with these devas and
7. I believe that spiritually awakened master or satguru is essential to know the transcedent
Absolute, as are personal discipline, good conduct, purification, self-inquiry and
8. I believe that all life is sacred, to be loved and revered, and therefore practice ahimsa or
9. I believe that no particular religion teaches the only way to salvation above all others, but
that all genuine religious paths are facets of God's pure love and light, deserving tolerance
and understanding.
Hinduism Study Guide Page 1
The Human Condition
What is the human condition? All life is a journey towards union with God but when they
remain ignorant of this, human beings suffer and are continually reborn.
Brahman is the basis of all else that exists, the ultimate reality behind existence and the only
reality which is permanent and does not change. Brahman is the divine or ultimate reality,
represented by the trimurti of of Brahma (Creator) Vishnu (Preserver) and Shiva (Destroyer)
which reflect this continual process of change as an ever flowing river. Brahman cannot even be
adequately named or described but is regarded as being composed of 3 qualities – sat (pure
being); cit (pure consciousness); ananda (pure bliss). To be with Brahman is to achieve these
experiences or realities. Everything is believed to come from Brahman (the universal soul). The
point of life is to get back to this original state of union with Brahman. Change is a necessary part
of this process until the permanence of Brahman is achieved.
Hindus debate whether Brahman has characteristics or not. Some describe Seguna Brahman
(with characteristics) others as Nirguna Brahman (no characteristics). Some Hindus see the role
of Brahman as personal and active in all real relationships. Others view Brahman as
impersonal, ultimate force which can only be represented by worship of symbolic deities. These
various gods/goddesses are all different aspects of Brahman who takes many forms and Hindus
are free to decide which form to worship. Hindus can more easily pray/express devotion to
images of gods/goddesses which they can see rather than Brahman which they cannot. It is
important to realise that many Hindus do not worship the statues but use them as symbols or
representations or focuses of Brahman. The character and actions of each deity show Hindus
something of what Brahman is like so a great variety can be helpful for devotion purposes. As
there can be no pictures or statues of Brahman, who is beyond shape or form, then there is a
need to find a suitable representation of Brahman in other forms. Hinduism believes that God
(Brahman) can be worshipped in many ways and so people can decide on a way which is
individual to them – there are many ways to climb a mountain.
The “self” or “soul” exists in the human body - ‘the divine spark’ - is known as atman. It is the
essential being of the person which travels in the cycle of samsara through incarnation to
incarnation. Reincarnation literally means ‘sea of change’, suggesting that things change all the
time as the ‘soul’ is continually on the move towards Brahman and the state of moksha. The
Atman is the ultimate reality of Brahman, ie. the true nature of the self is also Brahman. The
realisation of the atman/ Brahman union is the ultimate in Hindu teaching. Only the atman is
permanent and is the part which goes through the process of samsara in the journey towards
moksha. The atman is the controller of karma and hence the moral behaviour of the individual. If
at death, the soul (atman) has achieved liberation, no reincarnation takes place and eternal
bliss/rest in Brahman is achieved.
Samsara indicates the position of the individual soul in the process of development and can act
as a motivation to improve one’s life and gain better incarnation during the next. If a Hindu has
been born into a particular role/caste as a result of past incarnations, reincarnation may be seen
as a challenge to improve for their next incarnation. It may be seen as an explanation to why they
have been born into a particular caste/group – you reap what you sow idea. It explains the
apparent general inequalities of life. They may see their “soul” as caught in the cycle of samsara
so have link with past lives and a responsibility to improve things for the future. They may
see their own physical death as not the end of them but just part of the long process towards
moksha. It is a long but not endless process so this can encourage an individual to be positive
about final escape/liberation and hence moksha. Samsara can encourage Hindus to carry out
their Dharma appropriately and so contribute in a good way to society by fulfilling their moral
and social obligations.
Hinduism Study Guide Page 2
However, many Hindus are not convinced that reincarnation is a sufficient explanation for all the
inequalities of life. The idea of reincarnation has been used as a political tool to repress many
millions of Hindus throughout the ages. This has been an excuse for inequality. The caste
system and the belief in reincarnation upon which it has been based is now discredited and
rejected by many Hindus. Scientific knowledge has created problems with the idea that a “soul”
can move from one bodily form to another in the traditionally accepted way. The way in which the
“soul” is meant to transfer from one person to another is not adequately explained and suggests
that it is an unacceptable one.
Building up good karma gives you a better chance of escaping the cycles of samsara
(reincarnation) and achieving moksha (release). Living according to your dharma (duty) can gain
good karma and assist release from samsara. Karma gives an explanation of why people
continue to be trapped in the cycle of samsara. Good and bad actions are simply working
themselves out in samsara and explain the different levels/varnas that people are born into in
Avidya is the Hindu word for “ignorance”. It is caused by human being’s ignorance of the true
nature of reality. They take a materialist view of world, based on our senses for the whole of
reality and assume all the things we experience through our senses represent all that exists.
Those who think they know things and are “educated”, in reality are not. People could be highly
educated but still unaware of certain spiritual realities—not knowing what true reality is eg
union with Brahman (atman/Brahman). The consquences of this are that some may think they
have achieved their end (purpose) but have not and their world therefore collapses round about
them. By being ignorant of true reality, people condemn themselves to continue to experience
that (false) reality for many lives. Hindu thought accepts that the world we experience exists, but
is not all that exists. This is avidya or delusion. To think that this world is all that exists is
illusion (maya). This illusion has to be overcome if spiritual enlightenment is to be achieved, the
deluded cannot attain union with Brahman.
Exemplar Questions
‘Those wise ones who see, in the self, the one that is permanent among the
impermanent, thinker among thinkers.’ Katha Upanishad 5:13. Describe what is
meant by ‘in the self, the one that is permanent’.
Describe what Hindus understand by Brahman.
What is the role of Brahman in Hinduism?
Describe the relationship between Brahman and atman in Hindu belief.
Explain the Hindu belief that Brahman can be worshipped in many forms.
What do Hindus mean by “the self”?
Explain the importance of “the self” in Hinduism.
What are the main causes and consequences of Avidya?
What is the Hindu word for “ignorance”?
What is meant by ‘living in the midst of ignorance’?
Why is avidya important in the Hindu understanding of the human condition?
Why are the ‘foolish’ like ‘blind men led by one who is blind’?
Describe what Hindus understand by ‘samsara’.
In what ways is samsara affected by karma?
What is the relationship between karma and samsara?
Why is samsara a key belief in Hinduism?
What are the benefits and difficulties of belief in reincarnation for Hindus?
Hinduism Study Guide Page 3
The Goals
What are the goals of existence? The goals of existence are to live a virtuous (good) life and
finally to achieve Moksha.
Dharma refers to the leading of a good life in harmony with natural laws as defined in the
scriptures which was controlled through the lifestyles regulating traditional norms of behaviour, ie
the varnas. By pursuing your dharma you improve your chances of escaping reincarnation or
achieving a better incarnation during your next life. If you do not pursue your dharma
thoroughly, you risk the future incarnation of the atman being reincarnated at a lower level where
it can experience greater suffering. In Hinduism, practice (bhakti, karma or jnana) takes priority
over belief and so this has more of an effect on dharma and hence of reincarnation.
Moksha is Hindus’ final destiny, final stage of existence. Moksha is ‘release’ from the cycle of
rebirths (samsara) where the soul will never be reincarnated. It involves release from the
suffering and limitations of a narrow view of the self and an awareness of one’s eternal destiny. It
is the union of the individual soul (atman) with the universal (Brahman) like a river merging into
the sea. It is the state where the purpose of life and the successive progress of the soul has been
achieved and so no further rebirths are necessary. It is the ultimate state of self-fulfilment and
selfdiscovery in life. It is the highest state of happiness/bliss within Hinduism. It cannot be
described, only experienced eg like an animal describing to a fish what life on land is like.
Moksha relates to a number of other concepts and ideas within Hinduism eg karma – moksha
becomes a control for actions/behaviour; good actions = closer to moksha, bad ones = further
away. It relates to dharma – moksha aims to encourage Hindus to do duties of caste/follow
sense of moral obligation to enable individuals/society to operate more efficiently. It relates to
samsara – related to karma to bring about a better rebirth and hence a refining process for the
soul leading ‘closer’ to moksha. The importance of ways to moksha is referred to in Hindu
scriptures, the purpose or goal of jnana, karma and bhakti yogas is to move closer to moksha. It
is the rationale (the basic purpose) of Hinduism and encourages Hindus to attain spiritual as well
as material success in life (and particularly for those Hindus who are poor to give them the goal
of the spiritual life in absence of material possessions/comforts etc.)
Some might argue that belief in moksha makes no difference to the everyday lives of most
Hindus because it seems a long way off for most Hindus - especially for those who are poor
and in the lower castes so they would not be particularly attracted to it. Many Hindus have
problems just surviving and so moksha and the motivation of spiritual/moral improvement (and
release) not seen as major concern. It may be felt there are too many stages to go through and
moksha may not be seen as worth pursuing as a real possibility in practical terms. The
influence of scientific knowledge and developments in theology may affect views on whether
reincarnation/ moksha are factual or mythological beliefs. May lead to less certainty among those
who may have seen reincarnation as factual. Mythological understanding may be seen as more
relevant in relation to modern views about world and humans.
However, the goal of Hinduism is the union of atman/Brahman-moksha, so it could be argued
that the soul is not ‘at peace’ until this is achieved, therefore acting as a significant motivation
for practice of religion. It encourages Hindus to live out a good karma by practising their
devotions faithfully (bhakti) meditating on nature of atman/Brahman. It encourages Hindus to
aim for a higher caste to be ‘closer’ to moksha and discourages bad behaviour (karma) which
may result in a lower caste. It develops belief that life is an ongoing process beyond death. They
can have hope for a better reincarnation in their next life as a result of how they live in this
one. The main aim of Hindus is to avoid further reincarnations – not to be reborn – and so
encourages behaviour which will result in good karma.
Hinduism Study Guide Page 4
Hindus could be accused of being more concerned with achieving Moksha than with
improving society. Many Hindus concentrate on personal worship and devotion. This is very
individual and does not affect society much, if at all. The main aim in Hinduism is moksha
(liberation) of the individual soul from samsara. This is a very individual idea and many Hindus
see this as the main aim in following their religion. Because of this, Hinduism may encourage a
kind of selfish religion as it is their responsibility to achieve salvation in their own way. Each
Hindu can choose an individual path according to their needs. Another important way of
achieving moksha is by study of the scriptures and meditation – jnana yoga. If many Hindus
pursue this path then by definition it is individual rather than social or moral.
However, an important path in Hinduism is the karma – the way of action. This can encourage
Hindus to achieve salvation by what they do. This moral dimension can have social as well as
individual consequences. If we consider the theory of the caste system it is aimed at social
cohesion and integration with everyone having a duty (dharma) to perform. This affects the way
in which society exists and has many social implications. If you look at individuals like Ghandi
and his followers, a great deal of what they did was based on non-violent action (ahimsa). What
he achieved was great social and political progress. This certainly was not based on concern for
their own souls.
Samadhi means enlightenment, literally concentration ie total awareness of the nature of
reality/the self. Samadhi is indescribable as a state as is the nature of Brahman – both have the
same nature. It is a state of pure isolation where there is no sense of ‘I’ or ‘mine’ – pure
detachment from God, the world and others, complete in his own essence. It is a state of
timeless consciousness. It is the state of ‘God realisation’, the ultimate experience a Hindu can
have. It is the final state of liberation of the soul (atman). It is the highest state a yogin (one who
practices meditation) can reach, best achieved by Jnana as one of the margas. It is difficult for
Hindus to attain samadhi because it cannot be described properly with words or images – it can
only be experienced. Only then may Hindus realise they have attained it. Samadhi is not full
liberation from samsara (full liberation goes beyond samadhi) and Hindus must guard against
seeking samadhi by their own efforts which may be seen as a difficulty for them.
Exemplar Questions
What is meant by samadhi?
Why is it difficult for Hindus to attain samadhi?
Explain the importance of samadhi for Hindus.
How is samadhi linked with Brahman?
How does moksha relate to other important Hindu beliefs?
Explain what Hindus mean by moksha.
‘Belief in moksha makes no difference to the everyday lives of most Hindus.’ Would
all Hindus agree? Give reasons for your answer.
How essential is dharma to the idea of reincarnation?
‘Hinduism is more concerned with the destiny of the individual ‘soul’ than with
trying to improve life in society.’ Would all Hindus agree with this statement? Give
reasons for your answer.
Hinduism Study Guide Page 5
The Means
How are the goals achieved? There are many paths which lead to Moksha. The grace of
Brahman will always play a part.
Dharma refers to the duties and responsibilities which Hindus have in life and the ashramas
help facilitate this process. The ashramas set out a timetable for the carrying out of these duties
at appropriate stages in life. The ashramas aim to guide Hindus through appropriate courses of
action/behaviour at different stages of life. It encourages or teaches Hindus the various rules and
rituals of their religion which are seen to be different at different stages. It encourages people as
they pass through the different stages in life to let go and pass on such responsibilities to the
younger generations as they develop and mature. It helps prepare Hindus for the various stages
in life in advance by seeing others already doing this. If Hindus carry out such duties
appropriately then - within families and society - the aim of harmony will be achieved. If this is so
then everyone will benefit. There is an responsibility and a relationship between the two. One
operates hand in hand with the other.
The Four Ashramas, Stages in Life
First ashrama/stage name – Brahmacharya, Student stage – begins with initiation (sacred
thread) ceremony (Upanayana) representing a “second” birth (called “twice born”). The aim is to
gain knowledge by a course of study (mainly in ordinary schools) and to learn skills for
employment as well as various rules and rituals of Hinduism.
Second ashrama/stage name – Grihastha - after gaining skills and employment, the Hindu
marries and enters second stage (a married householder). This is seen as a sacred duty to
continue the family, social and religious traditions. The male has the responsibility for providing
for his wife and children, for education and earning money honestly and spend it in ways which
will not harm himself or others.
Third ashrama/stage name – Vanaprastha - Literally means forest dwelling stage, ie retirement
from daily work having fulfilled social, religious and family obligations and secured a pension.
Hands over running household to son and spends time reading the scriptures. Gives up all
pleasures. May go on pilgrimage. Give advice. Only men normally enter this stage.
Fourth ashrama/stage name – Sunnyasin - Gives up all ties with worldly life, name and
belongings and becomes a wandering holy man. Meditates on mysteries of death and rebirth.
Begs for food. When he dies is buried (rather than cremated) as there is no one to perform such
rituals. Optional stage only (not for women).
The relationship between dharma and the ashramas important to Hindus because Hindus refer
to their way of life as Sanatana dharma (eternal religion) and also as varna-ashrama-dharma
(duties of this way of life) - there is a close link here. The varna (hence dharma) duties for
Hindus remain unchanged through life but the ashrama duties change as life progresses, so
there’s a fixed/changing relationship. The dharma sets our duties and responsibilities and the
ashramas are the means whereby these duties are enacted at the various stages of life.
However, as the dharma is a universal obligation for Hindus, the ashramas are not necessarily
always followed – in fact rarely do Hindus go through all stages.
It could be argued that it is not necessary for Hindus to enter the final two ashramas in order to
achieve Moksha because following all ashramas is only an ideal; many cannot afford or wish to
do this. Many Hindus do not wish to give up everything they enjoy in life and so continue in
the second stage (Grihastha) until they die. Very few Hindus go on to the third stage and even
Hinduism Study Guide Page 6
fewer to the sannyasin stage so most Hindus do not necessarily see all ashramas as important.
Hinduism is changing from traditional forms and many see alternative ways of attaining moksha
without going through all ashramas.
However, it could also be argued that Hindu teaching is based on the four stages of life and this
can only be fulfilled when people are prepared to give up the world. By the time they reach the
sannyasin stage, they have sufficient experience of world to judge the best/worst of life. Only
then can they properly decide. Completing the four stages is only way to be ready to leave world
and unite or merge with God (Brahman). The attainment of moksha – union with Brahman – can
only really be achieved by separation of all things worldly – and hence by following the
Ahimsa (literally a-himsa) means non-violence. Himsa is the Hindu word for killing or injury. It
involves regarding all life as sacred and discourages Hindus from killing and eating any forms of
animal flesh. This relates to the belief in karma which accepts that any form of life is at some
stage in the process of samsara. Ahimsa is an important belief for Hindus because it expresses
the sancity of all life – animals, insects, fish, birds, human, etc. and encourages all Hindus to
refrain from actions which lead to the taking of life or the shedding of blood. However, this can
have negative effects as this belief does not encourage Hindus to interfere to prevent harm
being caused by others. By being limited to nonkilling or non-shedding of blood it is indifferent
to suffering caused by pain, lack of food and medical care, etc. Some Hindus have tried to act
against this belief by regarding it as lacking in compassion and against noble Hindu principles but
the majority still follow it. This can be seen as a key issue/important belief in Hinduism
It could be argued that Gandhi was effective in putting his Hindu beliefs into practice because in
South Africa his campaign eventually ended unjust laws against Indians/Hindus. He was
successful in gaining some kind of improved status for the ‘Untouchables’ whom he renamed
the ‘harijans’ or children of God. For example, some were allowed into temples and could walk
on any road and draw water from any well. His non-violent campaign against British rule was
finally successful when India was granted independence from Britain in 1947. International
newspapers and radio stations showed interest in his moral struggles so this gained publicity for
his cause.
However, it could be argued that his non-violent approach caused thousands of Hindus to be
beaten and to suffer pain and injury, sometimes death. It was not a victory without problems.
Independence for India is still affected by the problems between Hindu and Muslim followers.
Gandhi’s campaign was not totally successful. Gandhi’s own words: ‘My 32 years of work have
come to an inglorious end’ suggest that he did not see what he did as being totally successful
or effective.
The Four Varnas
Varna literally means ‘colour’ and refers to the four social classes (castes) in Hindu society –
Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. The system is to do with the proper division of
labour into a strict social order to ensure that different people have an important role in the
smooth organization of society. The traditional roles of the varnas are;
Brahmins - The priests/professionals who have to administer/keep to the rules of their
caste/dharma more strictly as they have to set an example to other Hindus. Their duties are
purely religious and they must study and teach the Vedas and Smirtis. For these duties he must
be recompensed by other Hindus.
Hinduism Study Guide Page 7
Kshatriyas - The rulers, administrators, soldiers who traditionally were associated with the
army/government and whose job it was to defend the country and to kill or be killed in the
carrying out of their duties.They were the secular power responsible for the enforcement of
Vaishyas - The peasant farmers and merchants so their duties involved the tasks of agriculture
and trade to make money which was the basis of the economic life of the country.
Shudras - The skilled workers eg weavers, potters and servants to the other three groups. In
effect they were slaves to the others and were regarded as so impure that they were denied
access to the Vedas. They could not offer sacrifices nor have sacrifices offered on their behalf
and could not be ‘twice-born’ nor associate with the ‘twice-born’ (those who were admitted to the
initiatory rites of the sacred thread ceremony).
The significance of the varnas for Hindu society is that it was the way in which Hindus divided
up people into different roles and responsibilities in order to produce a cohesive society. It
was therefore based on the occupation of each person so that society could thrive in an
economic and interdependent way. The varna or caste people were born into what was
regarded as the natural outworking of their karma from a previous incarnation and so was a
fair and appropriate consequence of your behaviour. People remained in their varna for their
lifetime but if they carried out their dharma/karma appropriately this would be rewarded in their
next incarnation. It therefore became a moral incentive for all to improve their caste.
The path of the Transcendent (The 3 Margas)
Bhakti Marga: usually takes the form of devotion through puja via the family shrine and involves
emotions, discipline as well as the intellect. Each family has a deity to focus on which represents
an aspect of Brahman. It involves complete faith/trust and shows surrender to the will of God.
Karma Marga: path of good moral action and the idea that living according to dharma (duty) can
gain good karma and come closer to moksha. It also involves reflection on thought processes
which can lead to good/bad action. The aim of karma is selfless activity and the use of God-given
talents and abilities to reach full potential and have beneficial effects on others and doing your
job to the best of your ability.
Jnana Marga: involves having a learned teacher to study and understand the difficult ideas of
the Vedas and Upanishads. It allows people to be more clear headed and concentrated on
personal improvement and spirituality by freeing themselves from the material world. This
enables them to reach a higher spiritual level by giving them a better understanding of the
universe and their place within it. It involves strict discipline and concentration/meditation on
The relationship between the margas and dharma is that Dharma is the role/moral duty code of
conduct of Hindus in relation to the varna (caste) to which they belong. Dharma is the main
vehicle for the atman on its way to liberation (moksha). The marga(s) is/are the way(s) which
Hindus choose in search of liberation. To practise one or more of the margas is to pursue your
dharma and move closer to moksha.
Some argue that the path of Transcendent is hard for mortals to attain because the Path of
knowledge is most difficult and few people have the ability to understand it. These scriptures
deal with the Supreme Spirit (Brahman), the individual Spirit (atman) and nature of universe and
place of human beings within it and so require significant and concentrated study which is not
possible for many. It is normally accompanied by the process of meditation and require a great
Hinduism Study Guide Page 8
deal of personal discipline to join the spiritual forces of the mind to the material forces of the
body to work together in harmony. Most Hindus do not have the time or the opportunity
(inclination?) to follow what is a very strict regime/process and demands separation from a great
deal of everyday life.
Some might argue that it is easier to be a Hindu in India than in Britain because in India, Hindus
are immersed in the whole Hindu culture and surroundings makes it easier to follow. Temples,
worship, ways of life are all immediately available to use/link to. The structure of much Hindu
society (especially in the villages) is still related to the caste system and the appropriate
dharmas. The coherence of Indian society is still deeply immersed in Hindu culture/belief.
Teachers and holy men (sadhus) are available when Hindus seek them. There are not so many
distractions in Hindu society in India compared to Britain. However, others might argue that
many Hindus have settled in Britain, set up businesses, shops, involved in professions, industries
so Hindu community life still strong especially in major cities. These communities have set up
Temples and other places of worship where they can celebrate the major festivals and
community activities. The caste system does not work to same extent as in India so people are
freer to move around in a “casteless” society to achieve ambitions and potential. Hindu
culture in Britain is not so stereotyped so people are able to be more varied in their lives and
worship. There are still significant numbers of priests and leaders in Britain to continue the
traditions in a multi-cultural society. Key aspects such as bhakti, karma, dharma, jnana etc can
all be pursued in Britain so not a great deal is lost in their beliefs and traditions
Exemplar Questions
What is meant by the varnas in Hinduism?
Describe the traditional roles of the varnas.
What is the significance of the varnas for Hindu society?
What is the purpose of the varnas in Hinduism?
Explain the relationship between dharma and the varnas in Hindu belief.
What do Hindus mean by ahimsa?
Why is ahimsa an important belief for Hindus?
‘Gandhi believed that non-violence showed the rulers to be unjust and bullies.
Popular opinion was won by Gandhi and international newspapers and radio
stations showed great interest in his moral struggle.’ How effective was Gandhi in
putting his Hindu beliefs into practice? Give reasons to support your answer.
“It is easier to be a Hindu in India than in Britain.” How true do you think this
statement is? Give reasons for your answer.
Describe the main stages of life for Hindus.
Explain the role of the ashramas for the Hindu way of life.
Why is the relationship between dharma and the ashramas important to Hindus?
Why is the link between ashramas and dharma beneficial for Hindus?
“It is not necessary for Hindus to enter the final two ashramas in order to achieve
Moksha.” Would all Hindus agree?
Describe two of the ways of “the path of the Transcendent” (The 3 Margas):
Give two reasons why the “path of Transcendent is hard for mortals to attain”.
Hinduism Study Guide Page 9