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Unit 2, Chapter 9
Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000
High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250
Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500
Europe in the 6c
Setting the Stage: Europe 600–1000
• Caliphates took Iberian peninsula
• Carolingian Empire – Gaul, Germany, &
• Pope – southern Italy
• Treaty of Verdun (843)
– French speaking west
– German speaking east
• Vikings – Scandinavia
• Celts & Saxons - Britain
• Plundered the English & French coasts
• Established settlements
– Iceland
– Greenland
– Newfoundland
• William the Conqueror (Normandy 1066)
Politics & the Church
• Relationship between kings & pope was
• 800 – pope crowned Charlemagne first
Holy Roman Emperor
• Canon Law (Excommunication)
• Jurisdiction
• Who should appoint bishops?
Investiture Controversy
• Controversy between the church and lay
lords over Bishop appointments
• Also applies to conflict of popes and kings
• Excommunication of Holy Roman Emperor,
Henry IV
• Led to Concordat of Worms in 1122
The Medieval Catholic Church
 filled the power vacuum left from the
collapse of the classical world
 monasticism:
 St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of
poverty, chastity, and obedience
 provided schools for the children of
the upper class
 inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war
 libraries & scriptoria to copy books
and illuminate manuscripts
 monks  missionaries to the
barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
The Power of the Medieval Church
 bishops and abbots played a large part in
the feudal system
 the church controlled about 1/3 of the
land in Western Europe
 tried to curb feudal warfare  only 40
days a year for combat
 curb heresies  crusades; Inquisition
 tithe  1/10 tax on your assets given to
the church
A Medieval Monk’s Day
Charlemagne: 742 to 814
Charlemagne’s Empire
Pope Crowned Charlemagne
Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800
Medieval Economy
Switch to more agrarian
Roman roads in disrepair
Back to bartering
Germanic lords focus on self-sufficiency
Decline of literacy
Rise of manors
– Small farms given to large landowners in
exchange for political & physical protection
The Medieval Manor
Life on the Medieval Manor
Serfs at work
A political, economic, and social
system based on loyalty and
military service.
Carcassonne: A Medieval Castle
Parts of a Medieval Castle
The Road to Knighthood
Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior
Revival of Western Europe 1000-1200
• Growth in population and agricultural
• Reasons:
– New technologies
• Plow; draft harnesses, iron horseshoes, horse collar
– Seaborne trade
• Venice
• Revival of coinage
– Growth of cities
• Esp. in Italy
Coincided & contributed to the
The Crusades
• Contributions
– Reforming leaders of the Latin Church promoted
the Truce of God
– Ambitious rulers were looking for new lands to
– Italian merchants wanted to increase trade in the
eastern Mediterranean and acquire posts in
Muslim territory
– Rivalry between popes and kings
– Desire of church to demonstrate political
authority over western Chrisiandom
Focus on the Holy Land
• Pious pilgrims often visited the relics of
Rome or Constantinople
• Some went to Antioch or Jerusalem
• Pilgrims brought back tales from their trips
• Battle of Manzikert
– Seljuk Turks defeated Byzantines making pilgrimages
• Byzantine emperor asked both the Western
Church for help to recapture the Kingdom of
– “God wills it!”
Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade
Setting Out on Crusade
The Crusades
1st – captured Jerusalem 1099
Muslims retook the city in 1187
Many attempts to retake the city
Defeated by Saladin
Christians lost Constantinople in last
Christian Crusades: East and West
Impact of the Crusades
• Exposure to Muslim culture & technology
• Arabic translations on Greek philosophical
& scientific works as well as Iranian &
Arab original works stimulated European
• Will lead into the Renaissance!
Medieval Universities
Oxford University
Late Medieval Town Dwellings
Medieval Trade
Medieval Guilds
Guild Hall
 Commercial Monopoly:
 Controlled membership
apprentice  journeyman  master craftsman
 Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece].
 Controlled prices