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Transcript
Biology
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6-3 Biodiversity
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6-3 Biodiversity
The Value of Biodiversity
The Value of Biodiversity
Biological diversity, or biodiversity, is the sum
total of the genetically based variety of all
organisms in the biosphere.
Ecosystem diversity includes the variety of
habitats, communities, and ecological processes in
the living world.
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6-3 Biodiversity
The Value of Biodiversity
Species diversity is the number of different species
in the biosphere.
Genetic diversity is the sum total of all the different
forms of genetic information carried by all organisms
living on Earth today.
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6-3 Biodiversity
The Value of Biodiversity
Why is biodiversity important?
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6-3 Biodiversity
The Value of Biodiversity
Biodiversity is one of Earth's greatest
natural resources.
Species of many kinds have provided us
with foods, industrial products, and
medicines—including painkillers,
antibiotics, heart drugs, antidepressants,
and anticancer drugs.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Threats to Biodiversity
What are the current threats to
biodiversity?
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6-3 Biodiversity
Threats to Biodiversity
Threats to Biodiversity
Human activity can reduce biodiversity by:
• altering habitats
• hunting species to extinction
• introducing toxic compounds into food
webs
• introducing foreign species to new
environments
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6-3 Biodiversity
Threats to Biodiversity
Extinction occurs when a species disappears from
all or part of its range.
A species whose population size is declining in a way
that places it in danger of extinction is called an
endangered species.
As the population of an endangered species declines,
the species loses genetic diversity.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Habitat Alteration
Habitat Alteration
When land is developed, natural habitats may be
destroyed.
Development often splits ecosystems into pieces,
a process called habitat fragmentation.
The smaller a species’ habitat is, the more
vulnerable the species is to further disturbance.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Demand for Wildlife Products
Demand for Wildlife Products
Throughout history, humans have pushed some
animal species to extinction by hunting them for
food or other products.
Today, in the U.S., endangered species are
protected from hunting.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Demand for Wildlife Products
The Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species, CITES, bans international
trade in products derived from endangered species.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Pollution
Pollution
Many forms of pollution can threaten biodiversity.
One of the most serious problems occurs when
toxic compounds accumulate in the tissues of
organisms.
DDT, one of the first pesticides, is a good example
of this.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Pollution
For a long time DDT was considered harmless,
and it drained into rivers and streams in low
concentrations.
However, DDT has two hazardous properties:
• It is nonbiodegradable, which means that it
cannot be broken down by organisms.
• Once DDT is picked up by organisms, it cannot
be eliminated from their bodies.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Pollution
When DDT enters food webs, it undergoes biological
magnfication.
In biological magnification, concentrations of a
harmful substance increase in organisms at higher
trophic levels in a food chain or food web.
In 1962, biologist Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring,
which alerted people to the dangers of biological
magnification.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Pollution
Magnification of
DDT Concentration
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6-3 Biodiversity
Pollution
Magnification of
DDT Concentration
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6-3 Biodiversity
Pollution
Magnification of
DDT Concentration
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6-3 Biodiversity
Pollution
Magnification of
DDT Concentration
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6-3 Biodiversity
Pollution
Magnification of
DDT Concentration
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6-3 Biodiversity
Pollution
Magnification of
DDT Concentration
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6-3 Biodiversity
Pollution
The widespread use of DDT threatened populations
of many animals—especially fish-eating birds like the
bald eagle—with extinction.
By the early 1970s, DDT was banned in the U.S. and
in most other industrialized countries; as a result,
affected bird populations have recovered.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Introduced Species
Introduced Species
Another threat to biodiversity comes from plants
and animals that humans transport around the
world either accidentally or intentionally.
Invasive species are introduced species that
reproduce rapidly because their new habitat lacks
the predators that would control their population.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Introduced Species
Hundreds of invasive species—including zebra
mussels in the Great Lakes and the leafy spurge
across the Northern Great Plains—are already
causing ecological problems in the United States.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Conserving Biodiversity
Conserving Biodiversity
Conservation is the wise management of natural
resources, including the preservation of habitats and
wildlife.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Conserving Biodiversity
Strategies for Conservation
Many conservation efforts are aimed at managing
individual species to keep them from becoming
extinct.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Conserving Biodiversity
What is the goal of conservation biology?
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6-3 Biodiversity
Conserving Biodiversity
Conservation efforts focus on protecting
entire ecosystems as well as single
species.
Protecting an ecosystem will ensure that
the natural habitats and the interactions of
many different species are preserved at the
same time.
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6-3 Biodiversity
Conserving Biodiversity
Conservation Challenges
Protecting resources for the future can require
people to change the way they earn their living
today.
Conservation regulations must be informed by
solid research and must try to maximize benefits
while minimizing economic costs.
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6-3
Click to Launch:
Continue to:
- or -
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6-3
The type of biodiversity that includes the
inheritance information carried by the Earth’s
organisms is called
a. biological magnification.
b. ecological diversity.
c. genetic diversity.
d. species diversity.
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6-3
Populations of invasive species tend to
a. decrease.
b. increase rapidly.
c. remain constant.
d. increase, then decrease.
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6-3
The wise management of natural resources,
including the preservation of habitats and
wildlife, is known as
a. biodiversity.
b. conservation.
c. habitat alteration.
d. ecosystem diversity.
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6-3
By focusing on protecting specific ecosystems,
biologists hope to preserve
a. global biodiversity.
b. biological magnification.
c. invasive species.
d. habitat fragmentation.
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6-3
In a food pyramid, biological magnification
results in the
a. increased amount of a toxic substance in
organisms at the lowest level.
b. increased amount of a toxic substance in
organisms at the highest level.
c. decreased number of levels in the food
pyramid.
d. increased amount of a toxic substance in the
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surrounding air or water.
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