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Transcript
Baroque Time Period
1600-1750
Baroque = oddly shaped pearl
General Characteristics
• Absolute Monarchy (Government ruled by a
Monarch, much like a president)
• Commercial music more important (secular)
• High power of middle class
• Huge exaggeration
Characteristics of Baroque Artwork
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Fancy/elaborate
Gold used for detail
Beautiful
Energy
Light to Dark
Differences?
Renaissance Art
Baroque Art
Differences with Renaissance and
Baroque Music
Renaissance
Baroque
Melody
Conjunct (step)-wide range
Disjunct (leap), Melodic
Sequence
Harmony
Controlled dissonance with
emphasis on tension and
release
Major and minor tonality
Rhythm
Not complex, beginning to be
notated
Free rhythm, driving rhythms
Form
Strophic, Imitative
Binary, Ternary, Ritornello,
Fugue
Texture
Polyphonic (4-5) parts. Vocal
and Instrumental of equal
importance
Homophonic
Musical developments from
Renaissance to Baroque
• Major/minor tonality
• System of tuning
• New instruments were
invented
The Well Tempered Clavier
• Book written by J.S. Bach
• Described the tuning system for major and minor
tonalities.
• Collection of solo keyboard music written in
every key signature
Famous Baroque Composers
Johann
Sebastian
Bach- March
21, 1685-July
28, 1750
Claudio MonteverdiMay 15, 1567 (baptized)November 29, 1643
Henry PurcellSept. 10,
1659November 21,
1695
George
Frederic
Handel- Feb.
23, 1685- April
14, 1759
Vocal forms
• Cantata-Vocal song with instrument
accompaniment
• Opera-Form of drama
• Chorale-Hymn or 4 part vocal work
• Oratorio-Large music composition, orchestra
and choir.
Instrumental Forms
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Suite- Series of little dances
Concerto- for solo instrument and ensemble
Sonata- Instrumental song
Fugue-Imitative, parts enter at different times
and repeat the melody
Sequence
• A motive that is repeated in a melody, that
moves up or down in a scale.
• Example: Jaws theme
Music Elaboration
• Trumpets were used more
• Addition of Timpani
• Larger ensembles
Doctorine of Affections
• Music appealed to emotions
• Music evoked one emotion throughout the
whole piece
Fugue
X is subject, ~ is countersubject
X ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
X ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
X ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
X ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Why end the Baroque at 1750?
• It is the year J.S. Bach died.
Ritornello form
• A reoccurring passage, much like a refrain or
chorus
• Italian for “little return”
Concerto Grosso
• A large scale concerto called a concertino vs.
the whole ensemble
• String quartet soli section in the middle of a
work
Ground Bass
• A bass line which is repeated throughout the
whole song
• Ex. Pachelbel's Cannon
Basso Continuo
• The “rhythm section” of a piece of music
• Must contain a chordal instrument (guitar or
piano)
• Must contain a bass instrument (cello,
bassoon, trombone)
• Both parts work together to support the
melody
• Often improvised
Development of Instrumental Music
• New forms of music
• Improved tuning
• Increased use of trumpets and timpani
• Musicians used
For balls and dances
Baroque Instruments
• Strings
– Baroque
Guitar
• Woodwind
– Oboe
• Brass
– Serpent
• Keyboard
– Harpsichord
Listening example 1
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Composer: Johann Sebastian Bach
Title: “Toccata and Fugue in D minor”
Date:1707
Texture: Polyphonic
Form: Fugue
Additional Information: Bach’s most famous
fugue
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ipzR9bhei_o
&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1
Listening example 2
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Composer Antonio Vivaldi
Title: “Spring” from the Four Seasons
Date: 1723
Texture: Homophonic
Form: Concerto
Additional information: used on the Zales
commercial.
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ldYNttdgl0&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_m
ode=1