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Transcript
CHAPTER THREE: THE DYNAMIC
EARTH
Section One: The Geosphere

The Earth as a System
 Four
1.
2.
3.
4.
Parts:
Geosphere
Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
Biosphere
Section One: The Geosphere

Geosphere: the mostly solid, rocky part of the
earth
 Extends
crust
from the center of the core to the surface of the
Section One: The Geoshpere

Atmosphere: a mixture of gases that makes up
the air we breath
Section One: The Geosphere

Hydrosphere: all of the water on or near the
earth’s surface
Section One: The Geosphere

Biosphere: the part of earth where life exists
Section One: The Geosphere

Earth’s Interior
Scientist use seismic
waves to study the
Earth’s interior
 Three Layers

1.
2.
3.
Crust: the thin solid
outermost layer of the
earth
Mantle: layer between
the crust and core
Core: Earth’s
innermost layer
Section One: The Geosphere

Physical Layer of the
Earth
 Lithosphere:
outer
layer of the Earth
 Asthenosphere: solid
plastic layer beneath
the lithosphere
 Mesosphere: middle
part of the earth
 Core
Section One: The Geosphere

Plate Tectonics
 Tectonic
Plates: a block of the lithosphere that
consists of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of
the mantle
 Continents move on these plates
 Plate Boundaries is where mountain building occurs
Section One: The Geosphere

Earthquakes
 Fault:
a break in the Earth’s crust along which block
of crust slide relative to one another
 Magnitude: the measure of energy released by an
earthquake
Section One: The Geosphere

Volcanoes
 Volcano:
a mountain built from magma that rises
from the earth’s interior to its surface
 Located near tectonic plate boundaries
 Have local and global effects
Section One: The Geosphere
Section One: The Geosphere

Erosion: the removal and transport of surface
material
 Water
erosion: erosion by rivers and oceans
 Wind Erosion
Section Two: The Atmosphere

Atmosphere: the mixture of gases that surround
the earth
 Made
of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other
gases
 Insulates the earth surface
Section Two: The Atmosphere

Layers of the Atmosphere
Troposhere: layer nearest to the surface of the
Earth
1.
a.
Stratosphere: layer that contains the ozone layer
2.
a.
3.
4.
Where almost all weather occurs
Ozone: made of O3 and absorbs UV rays
Mesosphere: coldest layer of the atmosphere
Thermosphere: layer farthest from earth
Section Two: The Atmosphere
Section Two: The Atmosphere

Energy in the Atmosphere
 Energy
is transferred to the Earth from the sun by three
ways
1.
2.
3.
Radiation: transfer of energy across space and in the
atmosphere
Conduction: flow of heat from a warmer object to a
colder object through contact
Convection: the transfer of heat through air currents
a.
Convection Current: the continual process of warm air
rising and cool air sinking causes air to move in circular
motions
Section Two: The Atmosphere

The Greenhouse Effect
 Gases
trap heat near the Earth and radiate it
Section Three: The Hydrosphere and
Biosphere

The Hydrosphere and the Water Cycle
 Water
Cycle: the continuous movement of water into
the air, onto land, and then back to water sources
Section Three: The Hydrosphere and
Biosphere

The Water Cycle
 Evaporation:
process by which liquid water is heated
by the sun and then rises into the atmosphere as
water vapor
 Condensation: water vapor forms water droplets on
dust particles in clouds
 Precipitation: the larger water droplets fall from the
clouds as rain, snow, sleet, or hail
Section Three: The Hydrosphere and
Biosphere

The Earth’s Oceans
 Artic,
Indian, Pacific, Atlantic
 Largest ocean is the Pacific
 Deepest point is in the Pacific and is called the
Challenger Deep
 Salinity: the concentration of dissolved salts
Section Three: The Hydrosphere and
Biosphere

The Earth’s Oceans
 Temperature
zones
 Global Temperature Regulator
 Absorbs
heat from the sun
 Ocean currents act to influence climates
Section Three: The Hydrosphere and
Biosphere

Freshwater
 Freshwater:
water that contain extremely small
amounts of salt
 Most in icecaps and glaciers
 River and streams

Groundwater
 Rain
and melting snow sink into ground
 Aquifers: a rock layer that stores and allows the flow
of groundwater
Section Three: The Hydrosphere and
Biosphere

The Biosphere
 Biosphere:
the narrow layer around the Earth’s
surface in which life can exist
 Made of the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere
 Life requires water, moderate temperatures, and a
source of energy
Section Three: The Hydrosphere and
Biosphere

Energy Flow in the Biosphere
 Closed
System: energy enter and leaves the system but
matter does not
 The
 Open
Earth is a closed system
System: both matter and energy are exchanged
between the system and the surrounding environment