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Fundamentalism & Jihad
Elementary Course on Islam
Da’wah Committee
Kowloon Mosque
Nasser El-Morshidy
Type of militantly conservative religious movement
characterized by the advocacy of strict conformity to
sacred texts. Once used exclusively to refer to American
Protestants who insisted on the inerrancy of the Bible,
the term fundamentalism was applied more broadly
beginning in the late 20th century to a wide variety of
religious movements. Indeed, in the broad sense of the
term, many of the major religions of the world may be
said to have fundamentalist movements.
Encyclopedia Britannica
The Wahabi Movement started with
Mohamed ibn Abdelwahab 17031792 in the Arabian Peninsula. He
called for eliminating the new
inventions in religion. Many of his
opinions were rejected by the
religious scholars in his time. He
succeeded in having an alliance
with Mohamed ibn Saud the ruler
of Al-Diryah.
Wahabism has a solid ground mainly in Saudi
Arabia. The Wahabi Movement takes a rigid view
regarding the application of Islam. Such rigid
ideas were not attractive in different Muslim
countries. The attacks of 11/9/2001 shed more
lights on the ideas of the Wahabi movement that
influenced Osama bin Laden.
Jamal Al-Din Al-Afghani 1838-1879 CE
Jamal Al-Din Al-Afghani was a
Muslim reformer. He was the
leading figure of Islamic modern
revival. He was born and
educated in Afghanistan. He
struggled against the Western
influence in the Muslim World.
He traveled to India, Iran, Egypt
and Turkey.
Jamal Al-Din Al-Afghani 1838-1879 CE
Al-Afghani indicated that there are two
reasons for the backwardness of Muslims:
religious prejudice and political despotism.
He called upon Muslims to have a
constitutional government and adopt the
principle of Al-Shura as a basis for the
governments in Islamic World. He called
for the education of woman and defended
the freedom of the press.
Mohamed Abdou 1849-1905 CE
He was born in Egypt and
educated in Al-Azhar Mosque.
He participated in the war
against the British
colonization1882. He was
arrested and exiled to Lebanon
for three years. He joined his
mentor Jamal Al-Din AlAfghani in Paris where they
published Al-’urwah AlWothqa Newspaper.
Mohamed Abdou 1849-1905 CE
Mohamed Abdou concentrated more on the
reform of education especially in the
religious institutions. He believed that
reforming education will lead to the right
understanding of the spirit of Islam. He
called for the application of the
constitutional and parliamentary System in
the Muslim World.
Rashid Reda 1865-1935 CE
He was born and educated in
Lebanon. He came in contact
with Mohamed Abdou when he
was in Beirut. He decided to
migrate to Egypt and
established Al-Manar Magazine
which was widely distributed in
the Muslim World. He
supported the restoring of the
Hassan Al-Bana 1906-1949
Hassan Al-Bana was born in Egypt.
When he was young, he was taught
by his father who was a religious
scholar. He was graduated from Dar
Al-Iloum College in Cairo. He
worked as a primary school teacher.
He was influenced by the ideas of
Rashid Reda. He was highly
respected by all who has come in
contact with him.
Jama’at Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimeen
Hassan Al-Bana decided to
establish Jama’at Al-Ikhwan
Al-Muslimeen Muslim
Brotherhood in 1928. The
main principles of the group
is to spread the awareness
about Islam among the
Muslims. He declared that
the group consider Islam as a
comprehensive way of life.
Abu Al-A’laa Al-Maududi 1903-1979
Al-Maududi was born in the
Indian Subcontinent. He
learned Arabic and religious
studies in the early years of
his lifetime. He worked as a
journalist. He wrote many
books among them: Towards
understanding Islam which
is translated to thirty
Islamic Group in Pakistan
Al-Maududi established the Islamic group in
1941. The group called for an Islamic
constitution for the new state of Pakistan.
He has been arrested many times for
calling upon the government to apply the
Islamic Law. The confrontation between
Al-Maududi and the government continues
as the latter ignore the call for establishing
an Islamic State.
Muhammadiyah in Indonesia
Muhammadiyah is an Islamic
organization in Indonesia. The
organization was founded in 1912
by Ahmad Dahlan who was
influenced by Muhammad Abdou.
Muhammadiyah is the one of the
largest Islamic organizations in
Indonesia with 29 million members.
Muhammadiyah runs mosques,
prayer houses, clinics, public
libraries, and universities.
Al-Jama’ah Al-Islamiah
Al-Jama’ah Al-Islamiah in Egypt was one of the
main militant groups during the 1980s - 1990s.
The spiritual leader of the group is Dr. Omar
Abdel Rahman who was accused of issuing a
Fatwa that led to the assassination of the
President Sadat in 1981. The leaders of the
group declared that they were wrong regarding
killing of civilians and holding arms against the
Jama’at Al-Jihad
Jama’at Al-Jihad was established in
1970s. One of the main figures of
this group is Aiman Al-Zawahri, the
head of in Al-Qaeda after the
assassination of Osama bin Laden.
There was a military confrontation
between the group and the
government in 1990s. The group in
Egypt declared in 2008 that their
concepts of Jihad was wrong.
Harakat Al-Nahda - Tunisia
Harakat Al-Nahda started in the
1970s in Tunisia under the leadership
of Rashid Al-Al-Ghanoushi. The
group tried to be involved in the
political system in 1980s. The
Government rejected the application
of Al-Nahdah to establish a political
party. Prominent leaders fled abroad
after they were accused of organizing
a military coup in 1991.
Islamic Salvation Front (FIS)
Islamic Salvation Front was
established in 1989 under the
leadership of Abbasi Madani. The
group called for the application of
the Islamic Law in different fields
in Algeria. The Front won majority
of seats in the district elections in
1990. The elections was cancelled.
The leaders of the group fled
Algeria and still lives abroad
Jihad & Terrorist Attacks
1- India
2- Philippines
3- Indonesia
5- China
6- Palestine
7- Saudi Arabia
8- Russia
What is Jihad?
The word Jihad means struggle
or strive. Thus Jihad means to
struggle or strive in the cause of
Allah. Jihad can be done in different
ways. It is not right to translate it
as Holy War.
Kindness to Parents
Jihad is not restricted to fighting in the
battlefield. Doing different good deeds
is a kind of Jihad.
A man asked the Prophet (P.B.U.H) :
“Should I join Jihad?’ The Prophet asked
him: ‘Are your parents still alive?’ The
man said: ‘Yes!’ The Prophet said: ‘Then
strive by serving them.” Bukhari
Resisting Oppression
An advice to an unjust ruler is a great
action of Jihad. The person might lost his
life for such a good deed.
Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said:
“The best Jihad is a truthful
word in the presence of an
unjust ruler.” Tirmizi
Permission to Fight
Islam focuses on the defence of the weak,
the humble and the oppressed and enjoins
Jihad for their protection
“To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to
fight) because they are wronged and verily Allah is Most
Powerful for their aid. They are those who were expelled from
their home in defiance of right, (for no cause) except that they
say: ‘Our Lord is Allah….” Qur’an 22:39-40
Fighting is Disliked
Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said:
“O people! Do not desire a combat
with the enemy, but pray to Allah
for safety. But when you are face
to face with the enemy be steadfast.”
No Aggression
Jihad on the battlefield is the last resort,
and is subject to certain conditions. Jihad
must be launched against the enemy who
attacks Muslims.
"Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight
you, but do not transgress limits; Allah loves
not transgressors." Qur’an 2:195
Accepting Peace
War is not the main aim for Muslims. If
the enemy offers peace, the Muslims
should respond positively.
“But if they incline towards peace, you also
incline towards it and (put your) trust in Allah.
Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.”
Qur’an 8:61
Divisions of Jihad
1- Fard Kefayah
When a group of Muslims carry on Jihad
(soldiers), there is no blame on others.
2- Fard ‘Ain
All Muslims in a certain country should
participate in the Jihad.
Conditions of Jihad
Good intention
‫”إنما األعمال بالنيات و إنما لكل امرئ ما‬
“The reward of deeds depends upon
the intentions, and every person will get the
reward according to what he has intended”
Conditions of Jihad
Jihad under a Muslim Ruler
Muslim scholars agreed that Muslims must
respond positively to the call to Jihad by the
caliph or the ruler of a Muslim country.
when invaders invade a Muslim country, all
Muslims in that country should defend their
country without waiting for any permission
or any call.
Conditions of Jihad
Following Islamic Manners
The Mujahideen should follow the rules of
Islam during fighting. Old people, woman,
children, monks should not be killed.
Fighting is against those who carry the
weapons to fight the Muslims. Prisoners of
war should be dealt with kindly.
Mutilation of dead bodies is absolutely
Victorious Believers
Victory is not a reason for feeling proud and
doing injustice to others. Establishing justice
and achieving prosperity is a priority.
"(They are) those who, if We give them power in the land,
establish regular prayer and give regular charity, enjoin
the right and forbid the wrong. With Allah does rest the
end (and decision) of (all) affairs."
Qur’an 22:41
Treatment of Defeated Enemy
Abu Bakr, the first caliph, instructed a
leader of a Muslim army going for fighting:
“When you gain victory over your enemies
do not kill their children, old people nor
women. Do not go even closer to their date
palms nor burn the harvest nor cut the
trees bearing fruits...
Treatment of Defeated Enemy
Do not break the promise once you have
made it and do not break the terms of a
treaty once you have entered into it. You
will find some people in the monasteries,
monks engaged in the worship of God, leave
them alone with what they are pleased with.
Do not destroy their monasteries and do not
kill them.”
Treatment of non-Muslims
Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said:
“Whoever persecutes a Zimmi (singular
of Ahlu-Zimma) or usurps his right or
asks him to do work beyond his capacity
or takes something from him unwillingly,
I shall be a plaintiff against him in the
Day of Judgement.” Abu Dauwd
Forced Conversions?
“Let there be no compulsion in religion:
Truth stands clear from error.”
Qur’an 2:256
“Say: The truth is from your Lord; so let
whosoever wills, believe and let Whosoever wills,
Qur’an 18:29
Did Muslims Use Force?
Sir Thomas Arnold, said: “…of any
organized attempt to force the
acceptance of Islam on the non-Muslim
populations, or of any systematic
persecution intended to stamp out the
Christian religion, we hear nothing.”
‘The Preaching of Islam, A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith’
Was It Possible?
“Had the caliphs chosen to adopt either
course of action, they might have swept
away Christianity as easily as Ferdinand
and Isabella drove Islam out of Spain or
Louis XIV made Protestantism penal in
France, or the Jews were kept out of England
for 350 years.”
Sir Thomas Arnold; ‘The Preaching of Islam, A History of
the Propagation of the Muslim Faith’
Another Non-Muslim Witness
De Lacy O’Leary said: “History makes it
clear, however, that the legend of fanatical
Muslims, sweeping through the world and
forcing Islam at the point of sword upon
conquered races is one of the most fantastically
absurd myths that historians have ever repeated.”
‘Islam at Crossroads’
Fatwas Against Violent Actions
Muslim scholars condemn violent actions
committed by some Muslim groups:
1- Kidnapping or killing of tourists.
2- Violent actions against civilians.
3- Violent actions in Muslim Countries.
Jihad and Terrorism
differences between Jihad and terrorism
1. Jihad is limited to combatants while
terrorism involves indiscriminate killing of
2. Jihad, when the need arises, is declared
openly, while terrorism is committed
3. Jihad is bound by strict rules of Islamic
manners while terrorism is not bound by
any rules
Al-Qaeda is an Islamic group
founded in 1988 under the leadership
of Osama bin Laden. Al-Qaeda has
attacked civilian and military targets
in various countries, the most notable
being the September 11 attacks in
2001. The attacks were followed by
the US government launching the
War on Terrorism and the occupation
of Afghanistan.
Scholars’ Opinions
In 2007, around the sixth anniversary of September
11, Sheikh Salman al-Ouda, a Saudi religious
scholar addressed the leader of Al-Qaeda:
My brother Osama, how much blood has been
shed? How many innocent people, children,
elderly, and women have been killed ... in the
name of Al Qaeda? Will you be happy to meet
God Almighty carrying the burden of these
hundreds of thousands or millions [of victims] on
your back?
Wrong Fatwas and Actions
Al-Jama’ah Al-Islamyah in
Egypt declared an initiative in
1997 to stop the acts of violence.
This was a breakthrough in the
relationship between the
government & the Islamic group.
The leaders of the Al-Jama’ah
Al-Islamyah issued some books
declaring that they were wrong in
their Fatwas legalizing the acts of
‫الدكتور ناجح إبراهيم‬
Wrong Fatwas and Actions
The main intellectual of Jam’at
Al-Jihad in Egypt declared in
2007 that the group was wrong in
committing violence. He wrote a
book entitled “Rationalizing
Jihad in Egypt and the World”.
He criticizes the sept.11 attacks.
Many experts believe that this
book will help in convincing the
members of the group who live
abroad to stop the acts of violence.
‫سيد إمام الشريف‬
Al-Qa’eda Opinion
Al-Zawahri replied to Said Imam that
“... we have the right to do to the
infidels what they have done to us. We
bomb them as they bomb us, even if
we kill someone who is not permitted
to be killed.”
Influence of Peaceful Initiative
Some experts believe that the writings of
the leaders of these groups denouncing violent
actions will not stop the violence. The main
reason of the violence is the political
despotism in Muslim countries, American
European countries’ foreign policy towards
Muslims especially in Palestine and
persecution facing Muslim
minorities in non-Muslim countries. All
these factors are still existed on the world stage.
We can conclude that Jihad is a vast concept that
encompasses various spheres of activity that is directed
towards the betterment of self and society.
Regardless of how legitimate a cause may be, Islam
does not condone the killing of innocent people.
Terrorizing the civilian population, whether by individuals
or states, can never be termed as Jihad and can never be
reconciled with the teachings of Islam.
 Holy Qur’an, Text, Translation & Commentary;
Abdullah Yusuf Ali.
Riyadu-Saliheen, Imam Annawawi; Revised by Nasser
Adin Al-Albany.
The Sword of Islam; WAMY Pamphlet.
Different Websites on the Internet