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Biol 2122
Exam #3
Reminder: The following study guide is exactly that, a guide. Use it to direct your studies for the third
exam. The text should be used to clarify any questions you have. You are still responsible for all class
notes covered or not covered in my lectures. Good luck to you all.
Digestion:
1) Identify the major functions of the digestive tract:
2) Distinguish between the organs of the alimentary canal and accessory system.
3) Trace a bite of turkey sandwich between mouth and anus. Be able to explain the different digestive
enzymes acting on various nutrients. Match the digestive enzyme to the specific location of the
digestive system
4) Circulation to the digestive tract is known as _______________ _____________.
5) Compare and contrast the 4 tissue types found in the GI tract.
6) What is the Auerbach plexus?
7) Identify the major membranes found in the abdomen.
8) Which organs are retroperitoneal?
9) Explain the features and functions of: Mouth, tongue, salivary glands, teeth, esophagus, stomach,
small intestine, pancreas, liver and gall bladder and large intestine
10) Describe the specific cells (microscopic anatomy) with the enzymes they release found in the
stomach, liver, pancreas and small intestine (i.e. parietal cells of the stomach)
11) Describe, in detail as described in lecture, the breakdown of proteins beginning in the mouth ending
with absorption and enzymes secreted by brush border cells in the small intestine.
12) Identify the specific anatomy of the duodenal flexure including all bile and pancreatic ducts.
13) Describe the breakdown of lipids as described in lecture. Terms used in your answer should include:
micelles, lacteals, chylomicrons and brush border cells.
14) Explain the regulation of pancreatic juice secretion and bile production within the digestive system.
15) Clinical corner: peptic ulcer, cirrhosis, cholecystitis, cholecystectomy, biliary colic, dysphagia.
Metabolism :
1) What is a nutrient? A kilocalorie?
2) Identify the six major nutrients.
3) What are the functions of CHO? Lipids? Proteins?
4) There are ____ amino acids. ____ essential and _______ non-essential.
5) Identify vitamins as either fat soluble or water soluble. Give the name of the vitamin and it’s
biochemical name.
6) Identify the facts, as given in lecture, for the summary of vitamin and minerals seen in the tables.
7) Define metabolism, catabolism, anabolism, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis.
8) What is the mechanism by which glucose enters the cells?
9) The metabolism of glucose: Where does glycolysis occur? Kreb’s cycle? Electron transport chain?
10) Be able to explain how many ATP’s, hydrogenated NAD’s and FAD’s, H20’s and CO2’s are produced
during the metabolism of glucose.
11) _______________ from glycolysis is converted into ______________ upon entering the Kreb’s cycle.
12) Describe the ATP cycle.
13) The final electron receptor within the electron transport chain is ______.
14) No oxygen available will create the creation of _____________ ___________.
15) C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---------- 6H20 + 6CO2 + 36 ATP + heat
16) Describe the effects of insulin and glucagon on metabolism.
17) Describe the transamination and oxidative deamination of amino acids in the liver.
18) Define metabolic rate and basal metabolic rate
19) Identify the components of heat production and heat loss within the body
20) Explain the homeostasis of thermal regulation as presented in class.