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Transcript
Active
transport
process by which cells
transport materials across the
cell membrane against a
concentration gradient that
uses energy (ATP)
Aerobic
respiration
Chemical reactions that
require the presence of oxygen
Anaerobic
respiration/fermentation
ATP
Chemical reactions that do
NOT require the presence of
oxygen
(Adenosine triphosphate)
energy-storing molecule in cells
Basic unit of all organisms
Cell
Cellular respiration
Cell Wall
Chemosynthesis
Chloroplasts
Diffusion
Chemical process where
mitochondria break down food
molecules to produce ATP
Firm, fairly rigid structure
located outside the plasma
membrane; provides support
and protection
process some bacteria use to
make food
Chlorophyll-containing cell
organelles found in the cells of
green plants and some protists
movement of particles from an
area of high concentration to
an area of low concentration
Type of protein found in all
living things that increases the
rate of chemical reactions.
Catalysts
Enzymes
Sugar, building block of
carbohydrates
Glucose
Lactic acid fermentation
Process in animal cells used to
make energy when they run out
of oxygen, causes muscle
fatigue
Lipid
Organic compounds commonly
called fats and oils; used by
cells for long-term energy
storage, in membranes
Mitochondria
Eukaryotic membrane-bound
organelles that transforms
energy stored in food
molecules into ATP
Organic compound
Compounds that contain Carbon
Osmosis
Diffusion of water across a
selectively permeable
membrane from high to low
Passive transport
Movement of particles across
cell membranes without the
use of energy
pH
Measure of how acidic or basic
a solution is
Photosynthesis
Process by which autotrophs
trap energy from sunlight with
chlorophyll and use the energy
to convert carbon dioxide and
water into simple sugars
(glucose)
Polymer
Large molecule formed when
many smaller molecules bond
together
Polysaccharide
A carbohydrate consisting of
many sugars
Ribosome
Nonmembrane-bound
organelles where enzymes and
other proteins are assembled
Chlorophyll
Vacuole
Green pigment found in
chloroplast used in
photosynthesis
Membrane-bound fluid-filled
space in the cytoplasm of plant
cells used for the temporary
storage of materials
Pasteur
Proved that microorganisms
appear only as contaminants
from air and are not
spontaneously generated
Nucleic Acids
RNA & DNA
Eukaryote
Cell with a nucleus & membrane
bound organelles
Prokaryote
Cell without membrane bound
organelles
Hypothesis
A testable explanation
Control
Portion of experiment that is
used for comparison
Independent variable
X axis
Dependent variable
The part of the experiment
that is changed by the person
doing the investigation.
The part of the experiment
the person measures.
y axis
Nucleus
Membrane bound organelle
that contains genetic material
& controls cell functions.
Substrate
Material on which the enzyme
acts.
Active Site
The part of an enzyme
substrates bind to.
Carbohydrate
Organic molecule used for
quick energy; made of sugars.
Tissue
Group of cells working
together
Organ
Group of tissues working
together
Organ system
Group of organs working
together
Species
Group of organisms that
interbreed successfully in
nature.
Population
Members of the same species
living together
Biotic factor
Living parts of an ecosystem
Reactants
Things used in a chemical
reaction
Equilibrium
Balanced conditions
Binary fission
Asexual reproduction of
bacteria
Haploid
A cell with 1 set of
chromosomes
Diploid
A cell with 2 sets of
chromosomes
Phospholipid
Molecule with polar head &
nonpolar tail found in plasma
membranes
Plasma membrane
Bilayer of phospholipids and
proteins surrounding a cell
Homologous chromosomes
Similar pair of chromosomes
containing same genes
Analogous structure
Same function, but different
parts
Homologous structure
Same parts, but different
function
Coevolution
2 species adapting to each
other
Divergent evolution
2 populations from 1 common
ancestor forming 2 different
species
Camouflage
Adaptation to help organism
hide in its environment
Mimicry
Adaptation for 1 species to
look like another species
Allele
Copy of a gene
Test cross
Amniocentesis
Used to determine unknown
genotype by breeding with a
homozygous recessive
A procedure for obtaining
fetal cells by withdrawing a
sample of fluid that surrounds
a developing fetus using a
hypodermic needle and syringe
Trophic level
Place in a food chain/web
Symbiosis
2 species depending on each
other
Mutualism
Symbiosis where both species
benefit
Parasitism
Symbiosis where 1 species
benefits and 1 is harmed
Commensalism
Symbiosis where 1 species
benefits and the other is
unaffected
Autosome
Chromosomes 1-21 that are the
common in both males &
females
Anticodon
Chromosomes
Triplet of nucleotides in tRNA
that recognizes and base pairs
with a particular codon in
mRNA
Cell structures that carry the
genetic material that is copied
and passed from generation to
generation of cells
Convergent evolution
Evolution in which distantly
related organisms evolve
similar traits; occurs when
unrelated species occupy
similar environments
Dihybrid cross
A mating between two
individuals that differ in two
genetically-determined traits;
ex. Wrinkled & green X
smooth & yellow
DNA
DNA Fingerprinting
Deoxyribonucleic acid; doublestranded polynucleotide
comprised of deoxyribose
(sugar), phosphate, and 1 of 4
bases; genetic material in all
organisms except certain
viruses
The pattern of DNA
fragments produced after
treating a sample of DNA with
a particular restriction enzyme
and separating the fragments
by gel electrophoresis
Dominant
Observed trait of an organism
that masks the recessive form
of a trait
Down syndrome
Genetic disorder in humans
characterized by distinct
facial appearance and mental
retardation, resulting from an
extra copy of the 21st
chromosome
Evolution
Gradual accumulation of
adaptations over time
Gamete
Sex cells, sperm and eggs
Genetic engineering
Method of cutting DNA from
one organism and inserting the
DNA fragment into a host
organism of the same or
different species, usually
bacteria/virus
Genetics
Branch of biology that studies
heredity
Heterozygous
When there are two different
alleles for a trait ex. Tt
Homozygous
When there are two identical
alleles for a trait
ex. TT or
tt
Karyotype
Meiosis
Mitosis
mRNA
Chart of metaphase
chromosome pairs arranged
according to length and
location of the centromere;
used to pinpoint unusual
chromosome numbers in cells
Type of cell division where one
body cell produces 4 gametes;
each containing half the
number of chromosomes as a
parent’s body cell
Period of nuclear division in
which two daughter cells are
formed, each containing a
complete set of chromosomes;
1 body cell produces 2 body
cells
RNA that transports
information from DNA in the
nucleus to the cell’s cytoplasm
Mutation
Any change or random error in
a DNA sequence
Nucleotide
Pedigrees
Phylogeny
Subunits of nucleic acid
formed from a simple sugar, a
phosphate group, and a
nitrogen base
A graphic representation of
genetic inheritance used by
geneticists to map genetic
traits
Evolutionary history of a
species based on comparative
relationships of structures and
comparisons of modern life
forms with fossils
Protein synthesis
The process of making proteins
using RNA to transcribe and
translate DNA
Recessive
Trait of an organism that can
be masked by the dominant
form of a trait
Sickle cell anemia
A genetic disorder in which the
beta globin genes of adult
hemoglobin molecules contain
an amino acid substitution
which alters the ability of
hemoglobin to transport
oxygen
Sex-linked
XH Xh
Traits controlled by genes
located on sex chromosomes
Sexual reproduction
Pattern of reproduction that
involves the production and
subsequent fusion of haploid
sex cells
Somatic cell
Body cell
tRNA
RNA that transports amino
acids to the ribosomes to be
assembled into proteins
Transcription
Process in the cell nucleus
where enzymes make an RNA
copy of a DNA strand
Translation
Vestigial organs
Process of converting
information in mRNA into a
sequence of amino acids in a
protein
Body structure that has no
function in a present day
organism but was probably
useful to an ancestor; provides
evidence for evolution
Darwin
Founder of evolutionary
theory- natural selection
Father of genetics
Mendel
Watson & Crick
Discovered structure of DNA
Basic building blocks of protein
molecules
Amino acid
Angiosperm
Anthers
Flowering plant ; any plant
having its seeds surrounded by
fruit tissue formed form the
mature ovary of a flower
Pollen-producing structure
located at the tip of a flower’s
stamen
Bacteria
Single-celled prokaryotic
organism
Cancer
Uncontrolled cell division that
may be caused by
environmental factors and/or
changes in enzyme production
in the cell cycle
Carcinogen
A cancer-containing agent
Development
All the changes that take place
during the life of an organism
A two-step way of classifying
an organism
Dichotomous key
Exoskeleton
Hard, waxy coating on the
outside of some animals;
provides support, protects
soft body tissues, and provides
a place for muscle attachment
A triglyceride consisting of 3
fatty acids joined by a glycerol
Fat
Homeostasis
Hormones
Organism’s regulation of its
internal environment to
maintain conditions suitable
for survival
Chemical produced in one part
of an organism and transported
to another part, where it
causes a physiological change
All of the chemical reactions
that occur within an organism
Metabolism
Nerve cells
Neuron
Phloem
Phylum / phyla
Pistils
Vascular plant tissue composed
of tubular cells joined end to
end; transports sugars from
the leaves to all parts of the
plant
The major taxonomic divisions
in the animal kingdom
Female reproduction structure
of a flower,; bottom portion
forms the ovary
Multicellular, autotrophic
organism able to manufacture
food through photosynthesis
Plant
Pollen
The male gametophyte of seed
plants, comprised of a
generative nucleus and a tube
nucleus surrounded by a tough
wall
Pollination
Protein
Reflex
Scientific name
Homo sapiens
Stomata
Transfer of male pollen grains
to the pistil of a flower
Organic molecule made of
amino acids
Simple, automatic response in
an animal that involves no
conscious control; usually acts
to protect and animal from
serious injury
A 2 part name of an organism
that all scientists recognize
Openings in the cuticle of a
leaf epidermis that control gas
exchange for respiration and
photosynthesis
Transpiration
Virus
Xylem
Yeast
In plants, the loss of water
through leaf stomata by
evaporation
Disease-causing, nonliving
particles composed of an inner
core of nucleic acids
surrounded by a protein capsid;
replicate inside living cells
called host cells
Vascular plant tissue composed
of tubular cells that transport
water and minerals from the
roots to the rest of the plant
Unicellular fungus that forms
colonies similar to those of
bacteria
Charles Drew
Blood bank
Naturalist and father of
taxonomy
Linnaeus
Abiotic factor
Nonliving parts of an
organism’s environment;
temperature, moisture, light
and soil are examples
Acid precipitation
Rain, snow, sleet, or fog with a
pH below 7; causes
deterioration of forest, lakes,
statues, and buildings
Adaptive radiation
Divergent evolution in which
ancestral species evolve into an
array of species to fit a
number of diverse habitats
Autotroph
Competition
Consumers
Decomposers
Ecosystem
Organisms that use energy
from the sun or energy stored
in chemical compounds to
manufacture their own
nutrients
Interaction among organisms
that require the same
resource.
Heterotrophs in a biotic
environment that feed on
other organisms or organic
wastes
Organisms, such as fungi and
bacteria, that break down and
absorb nutrients from dead
organisms
Interactions among populations
in a community; the
community’s physical
surroundings, or abiotic
factors
Greenhouse effect
Heterotroph
Limiting factors
Natural selection
Primary
succession
The trapping of heat in the
Earth’s troposphere, caused by
increased levels of carbon
dioxide near the Earth’s
surface; the carbon dioxide is
believed to act like a glass in a
greenhouse, allowing light to
reach the Earth, but not
allowing heat to escape
Organisms that cannot make
their own food and must feed
on other organisms for energy
and nutrients
Any biotic or abiotic factor
that restricts the existence,
numbers, reproduction, or
distribution of organisms
Mechanism for change in
populations; occurs when
organisms with certain
variations survive, reproduce,
and pass their variations to the
next generation
Colonization of new land that is
exposed by avalanches,
volcanoes, or glaciers by
pioneer organism
Producer
Organism that uses the sun’s
energy or chemical energy to
make its own food
Succession
Orderly, natural changes, and
species replacements that take
place in ecosystem
communities over time
Ecology / Silent Spring
Rachel Carson
Behavior
Courtship behavior
Anything an animal does in
response to a stimulus in its
environment
An instinctive behavior that
males and females of a species
carry out before mating
Estivation
State of reduced metabolism
that occurs in animals living in
conditions of intense heat
Geotropism/gravitropism
Plants response to gravity
Hibernation
Imprinting
Innate behavior
State of reduced metabolism
occurring in animals that sleep
though cold winter conditions;
and animal’s temperature
drops, oxygen consumption
decreases, and breathing rate
declines
Learned behavior in which an
animal, at a specific critical
time of its life, forms a social
attachment to another object;
usually occurs early in life and
allows an animal to recognize
its mother and others in its
species
An inherited, genetically based
behavior in animals
Instinct
Photoperiodism
Complex innate behavior
pattern that begins when an
animal recognizes a stimulus
and performs an action until all
parts of the behavior have
been formed
Flowering plant response to
differences in the length of
day and night
The growth responses of a
plant to light
Phototropism
Territoriality
Thigmotropism
Physical space an animal
defends against other
members of its species; may
contain an animal’s breeding
area, feeding area, potential
mates, or all three
Changes in plant growth
stimulated by contact with
another object; ex. Vines
climbing on a fence
Trial and error learning
Type of learning in which an
animal receives reward for
making a particular response
Behaviors / chimps
Jane Goodall
Pavlov
Introduced classical
conditioning with the use of
dog- salivating to a bell
Cell biology researcher,
particularly the surface
Ernest Just