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Transcript
Disease Cards
All information contained on disease cards was obtained from
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/diseasesindex/diseasesindex
(© 1998-2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Principles of Biomedical Science
© 2013 Project Lead The Way, Inc.
Tuberculosis (TB)
Type of Infectious Agent
Bacteria
Name of Infectious Agent
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Symptoms of Disease
The symptoms of TB disease depend on where in the body the bacteria are
growing. Usually, TB bacteria grow in the lungs where they cause a bad cough that
lasts 3 weeks or longer, pain in the chest, and coughing up blood or the phlegm
from deep inside the lungs. Other symptoms include weakness, fatigue, weight
loss, no appetite, chills, fever, and sweating at night.
Diagnosis of Disease
Skin test, blood test, chest X-ray, and sputum culture.
Transmission of Disease
TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The TB bacteria are put
into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes,
speaks, or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become
infected.
Treatment of Disease
Antibiotic treatment with isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), or rifapentine (RPT).
Strep Throat
Type of Infectious Agent
Bacteria
Name of Infectious Agent
Streptococcus pyogenes
Symptoms of Disease
General symptoms include throat pain, difficulty swallowing, red and swollen tonsils
that often have white patches or streaks of pus on them, tiny red spots on the soft
or hard palate, swollen and tender lymph nodes in the neck, fever, headache, rash,
and fatigue.
Diagnosis of Disease
Throat culture, rapid antigen test, and/or rapid DNA test.
Transmission of Disease
Streptococcal bacteria are highly contagious. They can spread through airborne
droplets when someone with the infection coughs or sneezes, or through shared
food or drinks. You can also pick up the bacteria from a doorknob or other surface
and transfer them to your nose or mouth.
Treatment of Disease
Oral antibiotic treatment with penicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, or azithromycin.
Syphilis
Type of Infectious Agent
Name of Infectious Agent
Symptoms of Disease
Bacteria
Treponema pallidum
Primary syphilis – small sore on genitals
Secondary syphilis – Rash that begins on trunk and covers entire body and may
be accompanied by wart-like sores in the mouth or gential area. Muscle aches,
fever, sore throat and swollen lymph nodes are also common.
Latent syphilis – No symptoms
Tertiary or late syphilis – Brain, nerve, eye, heart, blood vessel, liver, bone, and
joint damage.
Diagnosis of Disease
Transmission of Disease
Blood test for presence of antibodies, fluid culture from sores, or spinal tap.
Spread through contact with an infected person's sore during sexual activity. The
bacteria enter your body through minor cuts or abrasions in your skin or mucous
membranes. Syphilis is contagious during its primary and secondary stages, and
sometimes in the early latent period. It is also spread through direct unprotected
close contact with an active lesion or through an infected mother to her baby
during pregnancy or childbirth.
Treatment of Disease
Antibiotic treatment with penicillin.
Giardiasis
Type of Infectious Agent
Protozoa
Name of Infectious Agent
Giardia lamblia parasite
Symptoms of Disease
A gastrointestinal disease with water, sometimes foul-smelling diarrhea that may
alternate with soft, greasy stools, fatigue, abdominal cramps and bloating, belching
gas with a bad taste, nausea, and weight loss.
Diagnosis of Disease
The infection is diagnosed with a stool sample.
Transmission of Disease
Giardia parasites live in the intestines of people and animals. Before the microscopic
parasites are passed in stool, they become encased within hard shells called cysts,
which allows them to survive outside the intestines for months. Once inside a host,
the cysts dissolve and the parasites are released. Infection occurs when you
accidentally ingest the parasites. This can occur by swallowing contaminated water,
by eating contaminated food, or through person-to-person contact.
Treatment of Disease
Administration of medications specific to giardia infection (including metronidazole,
tinidazole, nitazoxanide, and paromomycin).
Malaria
Type of Infectious Agent
Protozoa
Name of Infectious Agent
Plasmodium parasite
Symptoms of Disease
Malaria causes damage to red blood cells which can cause serious and sometimes
fatal complications. The disease is characterized by recurrent attacks with moderate
to severe shaking chills, high fever, profuse sweating as the body temperature falls,
headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Diagnosis of Disease
Blood test for the parasite.
Transmission of Disease
Microscopic parasites transmit the disease from person to person. A mosquito
becomes infected by feeding on a person who has malaria and then transmits the
malaria parasites to the next person the mosquito bites. Malaria can also be
transmitted from mother to unborn child, through infected blood transfusions, and by
sharing infected needles.
Treatment of Disease
Administration of antimalarial drugs.
Cryptosporidiosis
Type of Infectious Agent
Protozoa
Name of Infectious Agent
Cryptosporidium parvum parasite
Symptoms of Disease
A gastrointestinal disease whose symptoms include watery diarrhea, dehydration,
weight loss, stomach cramps or pain, fever, nausea, and vomiting.
Diagnosis of Disease
The infection can be diagnosed with an acid-staining test which identifies
cryptosporidium under the microscope or a stool culture.
Transmission of Disease
The infection begins when you ingest the parasite which then travels to your intestinal
tract and settles into the walls of your intestines. You can become infected with
cryptosporidium by touching anything that has come in contact with contaminated
feces. Methods of infection include swallowing or putting something contaminated in
your mouth, drinking contaminated water, swimming in contaminated water and
accidentally swallowing some of it, touching your hand to your mouth if you had comes
into contact with a contaminated surface, or having close contact with other infected
people or animals.
Treatment of Disease
Administration of anti-parasitic drug, anti-motility agents to slow down the movements
of the intestines, and fluid replacement therapy.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)
Type of Infectious Agent
Prion
Name of Infectious Agent
CJD Prion
Symptoms of Disease
CJD is marked by rapid mental deterioration, usually within a few months. Initial signs
and symptoms typically include personality changes, anxiety, depression, memory
loss, impaired thinking, blurred vision, insomnia, difficulty speaking, difficulty
swallowing, and sudden jerky movements. As the disease progresses, mental
symptoms worsen and people eventually lapse into a coma.
Diagnosis of Disease
Doctors commonly use an EEG, MRI, spinal fluid tests, and/or tonsil biopsies to
diagnose the disease.
Transmission of Disease
CJD disease is caused by an abnormal version of a kind of protein called a prion.
Normally the proteins are harmless, but when they’re misshapen they become
infectious and can cause major problems on normal biological processes. Most people
with CJD develop the disease for no apparent reason, but others who develop the
disease have a family history of the disease or test positive for a genetic mutation
associated with CJF. A small number of people have developed CJD after being
exposed to infected human tissue during a medical procedure. This happens because
standard sterilization methods do not destroy abnormal prions.
Treatment of Disease
No effective treatment exists for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or any of its variants.
Ascariasis
Type of Infectious Agent
Helminth
Name of Infectious Agent
Ascariasis worm
Symptoms of Disease
After the ascariasis eggs are ingested, they hatch in the intestines and sometimes
migrate through the bloodstream or lymphatic system into the lungs. An intestinal
infection can cause abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea or blood stools,
and/or fatigue. A lung infection can cause persistent cough, shortness of breath, and/or
wheezing.
Diagnosis of Disease
Infection is identified by stool tests, blood tests, and/or imaging tests.
Transmission of Disease
A person must come into contact with soil mixed with human feces that contains
ascariasis eggs.
Treatment of Disease
Administration of anti-parasite medications.
Trichinosis
Type of Infectious Agent
Helminth
Name of Infectious Agent
Trichinella roundworm
Symptoms of Disease
When a person swallows trichinella larvae encased in a cyst, the digestive juices
dissolve the cyst, releasing the parasite into the body. The larvae then penetrate the
intestine, where they mature into adult worms and mate. At this stage, symptoms
include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and malaise. Later the adult female worms
produce larvae that penetrate the intestinal wall, enter the bloodstream, and burrow
into muscle or other tissue. This causes high fever, muscle pain and tenderness,
swelling of the eyelids or face, weakness, headache, and sensitivity to light.
Diagnosis of Disease
Initial diagnosis relies on physical examination of the classic signs and symptoms,
blood samples, and a muscle biopsy.
Transmission of Disease
People get trichinosis when they eat undercooked meat — such as pork, bear,
walrus, or horse — that is infected with the immature form (larvae) of the trichinella
roundworm.
Treatment of Disease
Administration of anti-parasite (anti-helminthic) medication.
Tapeworm
Type of Infectious Agent
Helminth
Name of Infectious Agent
Tapeworm
Symptoms of Disease
Intestinal infections cause nausea, weakness, loss of appetite, abdominal pain,
diarrhea, weight loss and inadequate absorption of nutrients from food. Invasive
infections result in fever, cystic masses or lumps, allergic reactions to the larvae,
bacterial infections, and neurological symptoms including seizures.
Diagnosis of Disease
Stool sample analysis, blood test, and/or imaging exam.
Transmission of Disease
Consumption of food or water contaminated with feces from a person or animal with
tapeworm or ingestion of larvae cysts in meat or muscle tissue of an animal with a
tapeworm infection.
Treatment of Disease
Administration of oral medications that are toxic to the adult tapeworm (including
praziquantel, albendazole, and nitazoxanide).
Common Cold
Type of Infectious Agent
Virus
Name of Infectious Agent
Rhinovirus
Symptoms of Disease
Symptoms include: runny or stuffy nose, itchy or sore throat, cough, congestion,
slight body aches or a mild headache, sneezing, watery eyes, a low-grade fever, and
mild fatigue.
Diagnosis of Disease
Physical examination.
Transmission of Disease
The virus enters your body through your mouth or nose. The virus can spread
through droplets in the air when someone who is sick coughs, sneezes, or talks. But
it also spreads by hand-to-hand contact with someone who has a cold or by using
shared objects, such as utensils, towels, toys, or telephones. If you touch your eyes,
nose, or mouth after such contact or exposure, you're likely to "catch" a cold.
Treatment of Disease
There is no cure for the common cold. Over-the-counter cold treatments do not treat
the cold but can sometimes relieve symptoms. These include pain relievers,
decongestants, and cough syrups.
Flu
Type of Infectious Agent
Virus
Name of Infectious Agent
Influenza
Symptoms of Disease
Symptoms include fever, aching muscles (especially in the back, arms, and legs), chills
and sweats, headache, dry cough, fatigue and weakness, and nasal congestion.
Diagnosis of Disease
Physical examination.
Transmission of Disease
Flu viruses travel through the air in droplets when someone with the infection coughs,
sneezes, or talks. You can inhale the droplets directly, or you can pick up the germs
from an object — such as a telephone or computer keyboard — and then transfer them
to your eyes, nose, or mouth.
Treatment of Disease
Bed rest and hydration is usually the only treatment needed. Antiviral medications can
be prescribed if taken soon after symptoms begin. These drugs may shorten the illness
by a day or so and help prevent serious complications.
Rotavirus
Type of Infectious Agent
Name of Infectious Agent
Symptoms of Disease
Virus
Rotavirus
Symptoms begin with a fever, followed by three to eight days of watery diarrhea and
vomiting. The infection can cause abdominal pain as well. In adults who are
otherwise healthy, a rotavirus infection may cause only mild signs and symptoms —
or none at all.
Diagnosis of Disease
Diagnosed via a physical exam. Stool sample may be analyzed to confirm the
diagnosis.
Transmission of Disease
Rotavirus is present in an infected person's stool several days before symptoms
appear and for up to 10 days after symptoms subside. The virus spreads easily
through hand-to-mouth contact throughout this time — even if the infected person
doesn't have symptoms. Not washing your hands after using the toilet or changing a
child’s diaper can cause the virus to spread to anything you touch, including food,
toys, and utensils. If another person touches your unwashed hands or a
contaminated object and then touches his or her mouth, an infection may follow.
Sometimes rotavirus spreads through contaminated water or infected respiratory
droplets coughed or sneezed into the air.
Treatment of Disease
There is no treatment for a rotavirus infection. The infection usually resolves within
three to eight days. Primary treatment involves the prevention of dehydration.
Histoplasmosis
Type of Infectious Agent
Fungus
Name of Infectious Agent
Histoplasma capsulatum
Symptoms of Disease
Several types of histoplasmosis exist. The mildest form produces no signs or
symptoms, but severe infections can be life-threatening. Symptoms of the infection
include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, dry cough, and chest discomfort.
Sometimes the infection causes joint pain and a rash.
Diagnosis of Disease
Inspection of lung secretions, blood or urine, biopsied lung tissue, and/or bone
marrow.
Transmission of Disease
Histoplasmosis is caused by the reproductive cells (spores) of the fungus. The
histoplasmosis fungus thrives in damp soil that's rich in organic material, especially
the droppings from birds and bats The spores are extremely light and float into the
air when dirt or other contaminated material is disturbed, so infection is most
commonly transmitted during cleanup or demolition projects and to farmers and
landscapers.
Treatment of Disease
Treatment usually isn't necessary if you have a mild case of histoplasmosis. But if
your symptoms are severe or if you have the chronic or disseminated forms of the
disease, you'll likely need treatment with one or more antifungal drugs.
Ringworm (Tinea corporis)
Type of Infectious Agent
Fungus
Name of Infectious Agent
Dermatophytes
Symptoms of Disease
A circular rash on the skin that’s red and inflamed around the edge and healthy looking
in the middle; slightly raised expanding rings of red, scaly skin on the trunk or face;
and/or a round, flat patch of itchy skin.
Diagnosis of Disease
Skin scrapings or samples from the infected area are taken and looked at under a
microscope.
Transmission of Disease
Ringworm is contagious and can be spread in the following ways: direct, skin-to-skin
contact with an infected person; touching an animal with ringworm; contact with
objects or surfaces that an infected person or animal has recently touched or rubbed
against; or contact with infected soil.
Treatment of Disease
Administration of a prescription-strength topical antifungal or oral medication.
Athlete’s Foot (Tinea pedis)
Type of Infectious Agent
Fungus
Name of Infectious Agent
Dermatophytes
Symptoms of Disease
Symptoms include itching, stinging, and burning between the toes; itching, stinging,
and burning on the soles of the feet; itchy blisters; cracking and peeling skin,
especially between the toes and on the soles of the feet; excessive dryness of the
skin on the bottoms or sides of the feet; and/or toenails that are thick, crumbly,
ragged, discolored, or pulling away from the nail bed.
Diagnosis of Disease
Skin scrapings or samples from the infected area are taken and viewed under a
microscope.
Transmission of Disease
Athlete's foot thrives in thick, tight shoes that squeeze the toes together and create
warm, moist areas between them. Damp socks and shoes and warm, humid
conditions also favor the organisms' growth. The fungus is transmitted by sharing
clothes or shoes with someone who has the fungal infection or walking barefoot in
public areas where the infection can spread.
Treatment of Disease
Administration of antifungal medication.