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Disease Cards All information contained on disease cards was obtained from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/diseasesindex/diseasesindex (© 1998-2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Principles of Biomedical Science © 2013 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Tuberculosis (TB) Type of Infectious Agent Bacteria Name of Infectious Agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Symptoms of Disease The symptoms of TB disease depend on where in the body the bacteria are growing. Usually, TB bacteria grow in the lungs where they cause a bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer, pain in the chest, and coughing up blood or the phlegm from deep inside the lungs. Other symptoms include weakness, fatigue, weight loss, no appetite, chills, fever, and sweating at night. Diagnosis of Disease Skin test, blood test, chest X-ray, and sputum culture. Transmission of Disease TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected. Treatment of Disease Antibiotic treatment with isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), or rifapentine (RPT). Strep Throat Type of Infectious Agent Bacteria Name of Infectious Agent Streptococcus pyogenes Symptoms of Disease General symptoms include throat pain, difficulty swallowing, red and swollen tonsils that often have white patches or streaks of pus on them, tiny red spots on the soft or hard palate, swollen and tender lymph nodes in the neck, fever, headache, rash, and fatigue. Diagnosis of Disease Throat culture, rapid antigen test, and/or rapid DNA test. Transmission of Disease Streptococcal bacteria are highly contagious. They can spread through airborne droplets when someone with the infection coughs or sneezes, or through shared food or drinks. You can also pick up the bacteria from a doorknob or other surface and transfer them to your nose or mouth. Treatment of Disease Oral antibiotic treatment with penicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, or azithromycin. Syphilis Type of Infectious Agent Name of Infectious Agent Symptoms of Disease Bacteria Treponema pallidum Primary syphilis – small sore on genitals Secondary syphilis – Rash that begins on trunk and covers entire body and may be accompanied by wart-like sores in the mouth or gential area. Muscle aches, fever, sore throat and swollen lymph nodes are also common. Latent syphilis – No symptoms Tertiary or late syphilis – Brain, nerve, eye, heart, blood vessel, liver, bone, and joint damage. Diagnosis of Disease Transmission of Disease Blood test for presence of antibodies, fluid culture from sores, or spinal tap. Spread through contact with an infected person's sore during sexual activity. The bacteria enter your body through minor cuts or abrasions in your skin or mucous membranes. Syphilis is contagious during its primary and secondary stages, and sometimes in the early latent period. It is also spread through direct unprotected close contact with an active lesion or through an infected mother to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth. Treatment of Disease Antibiotic treatment with penicillin. Giardiasis Type of Infectious Agent Protozoa Name of Infectious Agent Giardia lamblia parasite Symptoms of Disease A gastrointestinal disease with water, sometimes foul-smelling diarrhea that may alternate with soft, greasy stools, fatigue, abdominal cramps and bloating, belching gas with a bad taste, nausea, and weight loss. Diagnosis of Disease The infection is diagnosed with a stool sample. Transmission of Disease Giardia parasites live in the intestines of people and animals. Before the microscopic parasites are passed in stool, they become encased within hard shells called cysts, which allows them to survive outside the intestines for months. Once inside a host, the cysts dissolve and the parasites are released. Infection occurs when you accidentally ingest the parasites. This can occur by swallowing contaminated water, by eating contaminated food, or through person-to-person contact. Treatment of Disease Administration of medications specific to giardia infection (including metronidazole, tinidazole, nitazoxanide, and paromomycin). Malaria Type of Infectious Agent Protozoa Name of Infectious Agent Plasmodium parasite Symptoms of Disease Malaria causes damage to red blood cells which can cause serious and sometimes fatal complications. The disease is characterized by recurrent attacks with moderate to severe shaking chills, high fever, profuse sweating as the body temperature falls, headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Diagnosis of Disease Blood test for the parasite. Transmission of Disease Microscopic parasites transmit the disease from person to person. A mosquito becomes infected by feeding on a person who has malaria and then transmits the malaria parasites to the next person the mosquito bites. Malaria can also be transmitted from mother to unborn child, through infected blood transfusions, and by sharing infected needles. Treatment of Disease Administration of antimalarial drugs. Cryptosporidiosis Type of Infectious Agent Protozoa Name of Infectious Agent Cryptosporidium parvum parasite Symptoms of Disease A gastrointestinal disease whose symptoms include watery diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, stomach cramps or pain, fever, nausea, and vomiting. Diagnosis of Disease The infection can be diagnosed with an acid-staining test which identifies cryptosporidium under the microscope or a stool culture. Transmission of Disease The infection begins when you ingest the parasite which then travels to your intestinal tract and settles into the walls of your intestines. You can become infected with cryptosporidium by touching anything that has come in contact with contaminated feces. Methods of infection include swallowing or putting something contaminated in your mouth, drinking contaminated water, swimming in contaminated water and accidentally swallowing some of it, touching your hand to your mouth if you had comes into contact with a contaminated surface, or having close contact with other infected people or animals. Treatment of Disease Administration of anti-parasitic drug, anti-motility agents to slow down the movements of the intestines, and fluid replacement therapy. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Type of Infectious Agent Prion Name of Infectious Agent CJD Prion Symptoms of Disease CJD is marked by rapid mental deterioration, usually within a few months. Initial signs and symptoms typically include personality changes, anxiety, depression, memory loss, impaired thinking, blurred vision, insomnia, difficulty speaking, difficulty swallowing, and sudden jerky movements. As the disease progresses, mental symptoms worsen and people eventually lapse into a coma. Diagnosis of Disease Doctors commonly use an EEG, MRI, spinal fluid tests, and/or tonsil biopsies to diagnose the disease. Transmission of Disease CJD disease is caused by an abnormal version of a kind of protein called a prion. Normally the proteins are harmless, but when they’re misshapen they become infectious and can cause major problems on normal biological processes. Most people with CJD develop the disease for no apparent reason, but others who develop the disease have a family history of the disease or test positive for a genetic mutation associated with CJF. A small number of people have developed CJD after being exposed to infected human tissue during a medical procedure. This happens because standard sterilization methods do not destroy abnormal prions. Treatment of Disease No effective treatment exists for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or any of its variants. Ascariasis Type of Infectious Agent Helminth Name of Infectious Agent Ascariasis worm Symptoms of Disease After the ascariasis eggs are ingested, they hatch in the intestines and sometimes migrate through the bloodstream or lymphatic system into the lungs. An intestinal infection can cause abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea or blood stools, and/or fatigue. A lung infection can cause persistent cough, shortness of breath, and/or wheezing. Diagnosis of Disease Infection is identified by stool tests, blood tests, and/or imaging tests. Transmission of Disease A person must come into contact with soil mixed with human feces that contains ascariasis eggs. Treatment of Disease Administration of anti-parasite medications. Trichinosis Type of Infectious Agent Helminth Name of Infectious Agent Trichinella roundworm Symptoms of Disease When a person swallows trichinella larvae encased in a cyst, the digestive juices dissolve the cyst, releasing the parasite into the body. The larvae then penetrate the intestine, where they mature into adult worms and mate. At this stage, symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and malaise. Later the adult female worms produce larvae that penetrate the intestinal wall, enter the bloodstream, and burrow into muscle or other tissue. This causes high fever, muscle pain and tenderness, swelling of the eyelids or face, weakness, headache, and sensitivity to light. Diagnosis of Disease Initial diagnosis relies on physical examination of the classic signs and symptoms, blood samples, and a muscle biopsy. Transmission of Disease People get trichinosis when they eat undercooked meat — such as pork, bear, walrus, or horse — that is infected with the immature form (larvae) of the trichinella roundworm. Treatment of Disease Administration of anti-parasite (anti-helminthic) medication. Tapeworm Type of Infectious Agent Helminth Name of Infectious Agent Tapeworm Symptoms of Disease Intestinal infections cause nausea, weakness, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss and inadequate absorption of nutrients from food. Invasive infections result in fever, cystic masses or lumps, allergic reactions to the larvae, bacterial infections, and neurological symptoms including seizures. Diagnosis of Disease Stool sample analysis, blood test, and/or imaging exam. Transmission of Disease Consumption of food or water contaminated with feces from a person or animal with tapeworm or ingestion of larvae cysts in meat or muscle tissue of an animal with a tapeworm infection. Treatment of Disease Administration of oral medications that are toxic to the adult tapeworm (including praziquantel, albendazole, and nitazoxanide). Common Cold Type of Infectious Agent Virus Name of Infectious Agent Rhinovirus Symptoms of Disease Symptoms include: runny or stuffy nose, itchy or sore throat, cough, congestion, slight body aches or a mild headache, sneezing, watery eyes, a low-grade fever, and mild fatigue. Diagnosis of Disease Physical examination. Transmission of Disease The virus enters your body through your mouth or nose. The virus can spread through droplets in the air when someone who is sick coughs, sneezes, or talks. But it also spreads by hand-to-hand contact with someone who has a cold or by using shared objects, such as utensils, towels, toys, or telephones. If you touch your eyes, nose, or mouth after such contact or exposure, you're likely to "catch" a cold. Treatment of Disease There is no cure for the common cold. Over-the-counter cold treatments do not treat the cold but can sometimes relieve symptoms. These include pain relievers, decongestants, and cough syrups. Flu Type of Infectious Agent Virus Name of Infectious Agent Influenza Symptoms of Disease Symptoms include fever, aching muscles (especially in the back, arms, and legs), chills and sweats, headache, dry cough, fatigue and weakness, and nasal congestion. Diagnosis of Disease Physical examination. Transmission of Disease Flu viruses travel through the air in droplets when someone with the infection coughs, sneezes, or talks. You can inhale the droplets directly, or you can pick up the germs from an object — such as a telephone or computer keyboard — and then transfer them to your eyes, nose, or mouth. Treatment of Disease Bed rest and hydration is usually the only treatment needed. Antiviral medications can be prescribed if taken soon after symptoms begin. These drugs may shorten the illness by a day or so and help prevent serious complications. Rotavirus Type of Infectious Agent Name of Infectious Agent Symptoms of Disease Virus Rotavirus Symptoms begin with a fever, followed by three to eight days of watery diarrhea and vomiting. The infection can cause abdominal pain as well. In adults who are otherwise healthy, a rotavirus infection may cause only mild signs and symptoms — or none at all. Diagnosis of Disease Diagnosed via a physical exam. Stool sample may be analyzed to confirm the diagnosis. Transmission of Disease Rotavirus is present in an infected person's stool several days before symptoms appear and for up to 10 days after symptoms subside. The virus spreads easily through hand-to-mouth contact throughout this time — even if the infected person doesn't have symptoms. Not washing your hands after using the toilet or changing a child’s diaper can cause the virus to spread to anything you touch, including food, toys, and utensils. If another person touches your unwashed hands or a contaminated object and then touches his or her mouth, an infection may follow. Sometimes rotavirus spreads through contaminated water or infected respiratory droplets coughed or sneezed into the air. Treatment of Disease There is no treatment for a rotavirus infection. The infection usually resolves within three to eight days. Primary treatment involves the prevention of dehydration. Histoplasmosis Type of Infectious Agent Fungus Name of Infectious Agent Histoplasma capsulatum Symptoms of Disease Several types of histoplasmosis exist. The mildest form produces no signs or symptoms, but severe infections can be life-threatening. Symptoms of the infection include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, dry cough, and chest discomfort. Sometimes the infection causes joint pain and a rash. Diagnosis of Disease Inspection of lung secretions, blood or urine, biopsied lung tissue, and/or bone marrow. Transmission of Disease Histoplasmosis is caused by the reproductive cells (spores) of the fungus. The histoplasmosis fungus thrives in damp soil that's rich in organic material, especially the droppings from birds and bats The spores are extremely light and float into the air when dirt or other contaminated material is disturbed, so infection is most commonly transmitted during cleanup or demolition projects and to farmers and landscapers. Treatment of Disease Treatment usually isn't necessary if you have a mild case of histoplasmosis. But if your symptoms are severe or if you have the chronic or disseminated forms of the disease, you'll likely need treatment with one or more antifungal drugs. Ringworm (Tinea corporis) Type of Infectious Agent Fungus Name of Infectious Agent Dermatophytes Symptoms of Disease A circular rash on the skin that’s red and inflamed around the edge and healthy looking in the middle; slightly raised expanding rings of red, scaly skin on the trunk or face; and/or a round, flat patch of itchy skin. Diagnosis of Disease Skin scrapings or samples from the infected area are taken and looked at under a microscope. Transmission of Disease Ringworm is contagious and can be spread in the following ways: direct, skin-to-skin contact with an infected person; touching an animal with ringworm; contact with objects or surfaces that an infected person or animal has recently touched or rubbed against; or contact with infected soil. Treatment of Disease Administration of a prescription-strength topical antifungal or oral medication. Athlete’s Foot (Tinea pedis) Type of Infectious Agent Fungus Name of Infectious Agent Dermatophytes Symptoms of Disease Symptoms include itching, stinging, and burning between the toes; itching, stinging, and burning on the soles of the feet; itchy blisters; cracking and peeling skin, especially between the toes and on the soles of the feet; excessive dryness of the skin on the bottoms or sides of the feet; and/or toenails that are thick, crumbly, ragged, discolored, or pulling away from the nail bed. Diagnosis of Disease Skin scrapings or samples from the infected area are taken and viewed under a microscope. Transmission of Disease Athlete's foot thrives in thick, tight shoes that squeeze the toes together and create warm, moist areas between them. Damp socks and shoes and warm, humid conditions also favor the organisms' growth. The fungus is transmitted by sharing clothes or shoes with someone who has the fungal infection or walking barefoot in public areas where the infection can spread. Treatment of Disease Administration of antifungal medication.