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East-West Center Coupled Natural-Human Systems and Emerging Infectious Diseases: Anthropogenic environmental change and avian influenza in Vietnam In the beginning … Land Use and Land Cover Change Risk Transition Question: Is the risk of AI is related to anthropogenic environmental changes? • • • Smith (1990) proposed an environmental risk transition where the environmental factors leading to ill health were categorized as traditional or modern. Traditional diseases are problems at the household level (e.g., water, sanitation, food availability and quality, ventilation and indoor air pollution). Modern diseases tend to operate at the community level (i.e., urban air quality, occupational hazards, toxic chemicals and motorization) but also lifestyle diseases. Collaboration Social & Ecological Factors in Emerging Infectious Disease Hanoi Agricultural University National Institute of Hygiene & Epidemiology, Vietnam Relevance • Unravel the mechanisms that underlie new and reemerging infectious diseases (EID) by exploring complex interactions within and among coupled natural and human (CNH) systems. This poses one of the most difficult scientific problems facing society today (Wilcox and Colwell 2005). • Test the hypothesis that diseases are most likely to emerge in the transition phase as societies move from traditional to modern. • To determine what cultural & psychological factors affect perceptions of risk in traditional, transitional and modern economies.