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Transcript
+
Types of
Reproduction & Development
+
Sexual Reproduction
 The
fusion of reproductive cells from two
separate individuals to form a new
offspring.
 Offspring
produced by sexual reproduction
inherit some of their genetic information
from each parent.
Parent
Parent
Offspring
+
Internal vs. External Fertilization
 Internal
Fertilization occurs inside the body.
+
Internal vs. External Fertilization
 External
Fertilization occurs outside the body.
+
Internal vs. External Fertilization
REMINDER!!!
Sperm + Egg  Zygote
Zygote = “the fertilized egg”
+
Internal vs. External Development
 Internal
Development occurs inside the body
of the mother.
+
Internal vs. External Development
 External
Development occurs outside the
body of the mother.
+
Human Development
 Differentiation: Point
in human development where
certain genes turn on and others turn off.
 This
causes different cells to develop special
functions (Specialization).
+
+
TWINS!!!
 Fraternal Twins
– two eggs released during
ovulation and both are fertilized by different
sperm producing two different embryos.
 Identical Twins
– one egg is released and is
fertilized by one sperm, but the zygote splits in
half producing two identical embryos.
+
Asexual Reproduction
 The
production of two genetically identical
offspring from a single parent
 Single-celled
organisms can ONLY
reproduce asexually
 No
sperm or egg cell involved
Parent
Offspring
Offspring
+
Types of Asexual Reproduction
 Binary
Fission (amoeba)
+
Types of Asexual Reproduction
 Budding
(Hydra)
+
Types of Asexual Reproduction
 Regeneration
+
Cell Division
Mitosis & Meiosis
+
Cell Division Vocabulary Words
 DNA
– carries the genetic information of
the cell
 Nucleus
– stores DNA
 Chromosomes
– threadlike structure of
condensed DNA that contains an
individual’s genes
 Homologous
Pair – a pair of matching
chromosomes, one inherited from each
parent
 23
homologous pairs in humans = 46 total
chromosomes
+
Homologous Chromosomes
+
Cell Division Vocabulary Words
 Diploid
– number of chromosomes in all somatic
cells (2n)

For humans, diploid is 46
 Haploid

– number of chromosomes in all gametes (n)
For humans, haploid is 23
 Parent
Cell- what you start with
 Daughter
Cell – the product
 Somatic
Cell – a body cell. Any cell other than
egg/sperm
 Gamete
– a sex cell (egg or sperm)
+
Mitosis
Making exact copies of cells
(Cell Division)
+
Mitosis
Purpose: growth
and repair
One
diploid parent cell produces two
identical diploid daughter cells.
Mitosis
= Asexual Reproduction of cells
+
Meiosis
Making sex cells
(sperm and egg)
+
Meiosis
Purpose: making
gametes
One
diploid parent cell produces four
different haploid daughter cells.
 Each
daughter cell is unique and
different from the parent cell AND
the other daughter cells.
+
Meiosis
Also
called “gametogenesis”
Males
= Make 4 Sperm Cells
Females
= Make 1 Egg Cell & 3 Polar Bodies
+ Crossing
Over
 During
Meiosis, some information on the
chromosomes may switch between
homologous pairs.
 This
results in genetic variation.
+
Human Development
+
Interphase
DNA duplication
occurs to prepare
for cell division.
+
Prophase
DNA forms into
chromosomes and
centrioles move to
opposite ends of
nucleus.
+
Metaphase
Chromosomes line
up in center of cell
and spindle fibers
from centrioles
attach.
+
Anaphase
Chromosomes begin
moving towards
opposite ends of
nucleus (pulled by
centrioles).
+
Telophase
Chromosomes reach
opposite sides and
cleavage occurs,
forming two
identical daughter
cells.
Mitosis
+
Mitosis
+