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Transcript
Coenzymes Information
Coenzymes Are non-protein organic substances that usually contains a vitamin or mineral that is
needed by an enzyme to work. The place they connect to a cell is called a Substrate or active spot.
VITAMINS
Deficiencies in Coenzymes causes big problems:
• Vitamin A: visual impairment and night blindness...
• Thiamin (vitamin B1): loss of appetite, poor digestion, chronic constipation, muscular weakness
• Vitamin B2: sore throat, swollen tongue dermatitis, premature wrinkles...
• Vitamin B3 (Niacin): indigestion, fatigue, canker sores, vomiting, dementia...
• Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid): fatigue, insomnia, depression, vomiting, stomach pains, burning feet...
• Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine): dermatitis, cracked and sore lips, inflamed tongue and mouth, neuropathy...
• Folic acid: diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, weakness, sore tongue, headaches, heart palpitations...
• Vitamin B12 (cobalamin): burning of the tongue, fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, constipation and diarrhea,
abdominal pain,
• Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): dry and splitting hair, gingivitis and bleeding gums, rough skin...
• Vitamin D: osteomalacia, rickets.
• Vitamin E (tocopherol): muscle weakness, loss of muscle mass, impaired vision...
• Biotin: hair loss, dry, scaly rash around the eyes, nose, mouth, and genital area, decreased appetite, depression,
and lethargy,
• Vitamin K: buisability, gastrointestinal bleeding, menorrhagia (heavy periods).
OTHER COENZYMES THAT ARE NOT VITAMINS OR MINERALS
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which is an essential energy producer found in the cells of the human body
PABA: fatigue, irritability, depression, nervousness, headache, constipation . . .
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Major Minerals
Mineral
Function
Sources
Sodium
Needed for proper fluid balance, nerve transmission,
and muscle contraction
Table salt, soy sauce; large amounts
in processed foods; small amounts in
milk, breads, vegetables, and
Chloride
Needed for proper fluid balance, stomach acid
Table salt, soy sauce; large amounts
in processed foods; small amounts in
milk, meats, breads, and vegetables
Potassium
Needed for proper fluid balance, nerve transmission,
and muscle contraction
Meats, milk, fresh fruits and
vegetables, whole grains, legumes
Calcium
Important for healthy bones and teeth; helps muscles
relax and contract; important in nerve functioning,
blood clotting, blood pressure
Milk; canned fish with bones (salmon,
sardines); fortified tofu and fortified
soy milk; greens; legumes
Phosphorus Important for healthy bones and teeth; found in every
cell; maintains acid-base balance
Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk,
processed foods (including soda pop)
Magnesium
Found in bones; needed for making protein, muscle
contraction, nerve transmission, immune system
health
Nuts and seeds; legumes; leafy,
green vegetables; seafood; chocolate;
artichokes; "hard" drinking water
Sulfur
Found in protein molecules
Occurs in foods as part of protein:
meats, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, beans
Iron
Part of a molecule (hemoglobin) found in red blood
cells that carries oxygen in the body; needed for
energy metabolism
Organ meats; red meats; fish; poultry;
shellfish (especially clams); egg yolks;
legumes; dried fruits;
Zinc
Part of many enzymes; needed for making protein
and genetic material; taste wound healing, normal
fetal development, production of sperm, immune
system health
Meats, fish, poultry, leavened whole
grains, vegetables
Iodine
Found in thyroid hormone, which helps regulate
growth, development, and metabolism
Seafood, foods grown in iodine-rich
soil, iodized salt, bread, dairy
products
Selenium
Antioxidant
Meats, seafood, grains
Copper
Part of many enzymes; needed for iron metabolism
Legumes, nuts and seeds, whole
grains, organ meats, drinking water
Fluoride
Involved in formation of bones and teeth; helps
prevent tooth decay
Drinking water (either fluoridated or
naturally containing fluoride), fish, and
Chromium
Works closely with insulin to regulate blood sugar
(glucose) levels
Unrefined foods, especially liver,
brewer's yeast, whole grains, nuts,
cheeses
Science Standard LSIF Describe the role that enzymes play in the breakdown of food molecules and
synthesis of the many different molecules needed for cell structure and function.
Enzymes and Co-Enzymes
1. Name the enzymes that are used to break down food (catabolism): Carbohydrates are broken down by
Maltose___________ Sucrose ___________Lactose ______________Amylose________________
Protein (peptide bonds) are broken down by_______ Lipids are broken down by_______________
2. What are most enzymes made of?________________
3. How are enzymes like a key?______________________________________________________
4. What are coenzymes?____________________________________________________________
5. What are most coenzymes made of? ____________________ and_________________________
6. What do you call the spot on cells enzymes work on?
7. Draw a picture of how coenzymes work on enzymes and cells.
Coenzyme
Vitamin
Vitamin
Vitamin
Vitamin
Vitamin
Vitamin
Vitamin
Vitamin
Vitamin
Mineral
Mineral
Mineral
Mineral
Mineral
Mineral
Mineral
Other
Other
Why it is Needed