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Chapter-Three Learning, Motivation, and Performance Understanding Motivation and Performance A general performance model (shown bellow) indicates that a persons’ (P) Depends on the interaction of motivation (M), KSAs and environment (E). Motivation arises from your needs and beliefs about how best to satisfy those needs. Both motivation and KSAs are part of your memory and thinking systems (i.e., cognitive structure). Environment refers to the physical surroundings in which performance must occur, including barriers and aids to performance. Environment also includes the objects and events (cues) that your might see as indicating that your performance will be rewarded or punished. Performance (P) Motivation (M) Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSA) Environments (E) P = M × KSA × E Factors Determining Human Performance Learning, Motivation, and Performance Motivation: Why DO They Art Like That? Motivation is part a parson’s cognitive structure and is not directly observable. Thus, it is typically defined in terms of its effects on behavior, which are observable. Most of the scientific literature defines Motivation as the direction, persistence, and amount of effort expended by an individual to achieve a specified outcome. In other words, the following factors reflect a person’s motivating: o What need (s) the person is trying to satisfy o What types of activities the person engages in to satisfy the need o How long the person engages in the activity o How hard the person works at the activity. Learning, Motivation, and Performance Need Theory Our needs are the basis of our motivation and the reason for almost all of our activity Understanding a person’s needs helps you understand his behavior. From Maslow’s early work’s Clayton Alderfrer developed a needs theory of motivation called ERG theory. The initials ERG represent the three basic needs of the theory: existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence needs correspond to Maslow’s lower-order physiological and security needs. They are the immediate needs required to sustain life-needs for food, shelter, and the like-and the need for some security in the future for safe and healthy life. Relatedness needs reflect people’s need to be valued and accepted by others. Interpersonal relationship and group membership (work, family, friends, etc.) act to satisfy these need. Growth needs included feelings of self-worth and competency and achieving our potential. Recognition, accomplishment, challenging opportunities, and felling of fulfillment are outcomes that can satisfy these needs. Learning, Motivation, and Performance Process Theories Process theories of motivation describe how a person’s needs translate into active. Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is the association of a generalized response to some signal in the environment. It typically involves learning to emit a non-voluntary response to some signal that in the past did not produce that response. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Unconditioned stimulus (Meat powder) Conditioned stimulus paired With unconditioned stimulus (Buzzer following closely in time, Over many trials, by meat power) Conditioned stimulus (Buzzer alone) Unconditioned response (Salivation) Unconditioned response (Salivation) Conditioned response (Salivation) Classical Conditioning Process Learning, Motivation, and Performance Skinner identified four types of consequences the can result from behavior. 1. 2. 3. 4. Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction When behavior results in either positive or negative reinforcement, the likelihood that the behavior will occur in similar future circumstances is increased. Positive reinforcement occurs when your behavior rustles in something desirable happening to you-either tangible (such as receiving money), psychological (such as feeling pleasure, or some combination of the two. Negative reinforcement occurs when your behavior results in removing something you find annoying, frustrating, or unpleasant. This “good” outcome increases your likelihood of repeating the behavior. For example, if you have a headache, take an aspirin, and the headache goes away, the “aspirin-taking response” is negatively reinforced. Learning, Motivation, and Performance Punishment decreases the likelihood of the response occurring in the future, Like reinforcement, punishment can be tangible, psychological, or both and can come from the environment or be self-administered. The latter form of punishment is called extinction. For example, you might buy books by a certain author because of the positive feelings you experience as read them. However, while reading the last two books by this author, you did not experiment those positive feelings. Reinforcement versus Punishment: Punishment can eliminate undesirable behavior in the workplace. However, several problems make it undesirable as a management-training tool. It does not motivate people to do things, only not to do things. It does not indicate what the described behavior is, only what is not desired. If the undesired behavior is punished only sometimes, people will learn the situations in which they can get away with it. The saying “While the cant’s away, the mice will play” neatly captures one problem with this technique, punishment requires constant vigilance on the part of a supervisor and encourages employee efforts to “beat the system” Learning, Motivation, and Performance Reinforcement versus Punishment/Cont...: If a person’s understand behavior is rewarding, the punishment must be severe enough to offset the behavior reinforcing properties. Escalating negative outcomes to employees can raise ethical, moral, and commonsense objections. Someone must do the punishing. The persons becomes someone to be avoided. Supervisors avoided by subordinates experience leadership problems. Understanding Learning Two Definitions of Learning : Because we cannot observe learning, we must infer that it occurs by looking at its observable effects. What things, influenced by learning, can we observe? The answer is, the learner’s behavior. Cognitive theorists, however, insist that even though learning can be inferred from behavior, it is separate from the behavior itself. By examining the ways in which people respond to information and the ways in which different types of behavior are grouped or separated, cognitive theorists developed theories of how information is learned. Learning, Motivation, and Performance Issue Cognitive Approach Behaviorist Approach Learner’s role Active, self, directed, Self-evaluating Passive, depended Instructor’s role Facilitator, coordinator, And presenter Director, monitor, And evaluator Training content Problem or task oriented Subject oriented Learner motivation More internally motivated More externally motivated Training climate Relaxed, mutually trustful Respectful, and collaborative Formal, authority oriented, Judgmental, and competitive Instructional goals Collaboratively developed Developed by instructor Instructional activities Interactive, group, project oriented, and experiential Directive, individual, and subject oriented Some training Implications of Cognitive and Behaviorist Learning Theories Learning, Motivation, and Performance External Environment Learner’s Cognitive Processes Stimulus Stimulus Stimulus A T T E N TI O N Motivation Retention 1. Symbolic Coding 2. Cognitive Organization 3. Symbolic Rehearsal Stimulus Consequences of Behavior Behavioral Reproduction Cognitive Processes in Social Learning Attention: The learning process begins with the learner’s attention becoming focused on particular objects and events in the environment (stimuli). Of the great multitude of objects and events in the typical environment, we notice many of them but pay attention only to some. The things we pay attention to are those that stand out for some reason (loud, bright, unusual, etc.) or those that we learn are important (e.g., lead to need satisfaction). This reaction is reflected in the fact the fact that we are more likely to model the behavior of someone who is spotlighted in some way (highly publicized, unusually attractive, popular, etc.) than of someone who is not. Similarly, we are more likely to model someone who seems to receive a lot of reinforcement than someone who receives little. Learning, Motivation, and Performance Retention: Once attention is focused on an object or event, the incoming information is processed for possible retention. Some of the information will be retained, and some will be lost. The more training is designed to facilitate the retention processes, the more learning will occur. The initial phase of retention is the translation of the information into symbols meaningful to the individual, a process called symbolic coding. It transforms external objects and events into internal images and verbal symbols. These symbols are than organized in to the existing cognitive structure through associations with previously stored information. This process is called cognitive organization. To facilitate the retention process, the learner should “practice” the learned material through symbolic rehearsal, which involves visualizing or imagining how the knowledge or skill will be used. Behavioral reproduction: Behavioral reproduction is repeated practice. The more a person practices using new information, the more it is learned and retained. The effectiveness of practice depends on how the practice is designed and reinforced. Learning, Motivation, and Performance Cognitive Ability Knowledge Acquisition Self Efficacy Valence of Outcomes Anxiety Climate for Transfer Skill Acquisition Motivation to Learn Training Training Reactions Transfer To the Job Job Performance Post-Training Self-Efficacy Supervisor and Peer Support Factors Affecting Motivation to Learn and Transfer of Training Learning, Motivation, and Performance Training that motivates Adults to Learn: Application is Management Learning Very little known about how managers acquire skills that make them successful. Burgoyne and Stuart undertook a very useful study on the learning processes relating to the acquisitions of managerial skills and qualities. They identified seven learning processes that occurred fairly frequently in the acquisitions of managerial skills. These are: 1. Modeling: Copying or imitation a “respected other” who is presumed to be right because of his position, status, pervious success, or personal charisma. 2. Vicarious discovery: Observing the actions and behavior of others and modifying one’s own actions by positive or negative imitation. This is the same as learning form other’s experience. 3. Unplanned discovery: Learning from trial and error in the search for a solution to the problem. 4. Planned discovery: Learning from observing the consequences of one’s actions in situations entered into with learning as a deliberate aim. 5. Being taught: Told or shown an approach, idea, or relationship. 6. Discussion: Sharing information, ideas, interpretation, experiences, and feelings with others in task situations. 7. Strong data: Facts coming to one’s attention in the normal course of events. Learning, Motivation, and Performance Involving Trainees in the Process Training professionals should consider the following nine principles in developing training programs for their employees: 1. Identify, where possible, the trainees’ strengths and challenges relation to motivation to learn and design objectives to organizational many of these as I practical. 2. Align learning objectives to organizational goals and show and learning is important to trainee and organizational success. 3. Describe program goals and objectives clearly at the start of training. 4. Engage the trainee early, thus maximizing attentions, expectations, and memory. 5. Use a systematic, logically connected sequencing of learning activities so that trainees master lower level of learning before moving to higher levels. 6. Use a variety of training methods. 7. Use artistic job-or life-relevant training material. 8. Allow trainees to work together and share experiences. 9. Provide constant feedback and reinforcement while encouraging selfassessment. Learning, Motivation, and Performance The trainer can address the diversity of characteristics trainees bring to training within the context of a group-learning environment by applying these principles to training programs. The analysis attempted to provide answers to the following questions: • What did they learn? • Where did they learn? • How did they learn? What did they learn? The first part of the write-up was devoted to an identification of the knowledge skills, and attitudes, which they believe were significant to function as effective managers. The different kinds of skills identified by them were grouped into the following categories-interpersonal skills, communication skills, organizational practices, and job knowledge. Learning, Motivation, and Performance Where did they learn? •Working under pressure to complete a formal course requirement. •Listening to a presentation by a company executive. •Experience of receiving clear instructions in a simulated structured exercise from a fried. •Learning to assign responsibility, trust others, and delegate work by being a member of a project team. •The opportunity to make a presentation before company executives on the work done during summer assignments. •Having to adjust to a new environment as a result of family relocation. •Going on a mountain trek, losing one’s track, and getting back to base. •Having to organize an activity as an office bearer of the Student’s Association. Learning, Motivation, and Performance How Did They Learn? The learning activities pursued by students indeed represent a very wide range. These activities have different meanings for different people. The lecture that a student attends or a role play or a structured exercise that he participates in is a unique experience for the student. However, one can discern that experiences are organized around some themes. These are. Learning by Accomplishment : Is was clear from the description given by the students that learning resulted from practical accomplishment. They learnt through the experience of seeking an opportunity, taking the initiative, and meeting a challenge. This mode of learning is typical of people who involve themselves in new experiences and excel in situations where they must adapt themselves to specific and immediate circumstances. Learning by introspection: The description of learning events also covers activities when students ended up developing an insight and understanding about their own self. These examples indicate a mode of learning by refection on one’s own experiences. Introspection can help individuals to develops insights about themselves. Learning, Motivation, and Performance Learning by Doing Formal Courses: The experience of working under pressure and responding to the demands made by formal course requirements seems to be one of the modes of learning. A significant feature of learning through formal courses was the need for clear instructions and consistent feedback about one’s performance. These descriptions indicate that learning events where the student received clear instructions, where she is frequently evaluated, an receives continuous feedback enhances the value of learning. Learning by Interaction with Managers: The experience of listening to company executives and interacting with them was identified by some students as a significant learning experience. This student was undertaken with the purpose of developing an understanding about the process of learning as seen from the perspective of the students. Generalizations cannot be made since the data pertains to only 15 students. However, the following concluding can be drawn from the data although tentatively: 1. The experience, from which students learn about being effective managers, very. Most of the events identified as significant learning experiences by students occur in the course of everyday work or life experiences. Learning, Motivation, and Performance This indicates that there is a need for understanding how management students an also experienced manager learn through natural daily life experiences. Academicians and professionals in the field of training and development have been concerned more with the identification of skills, which make managers effective. Very little attention has been devoted to understanding how skills are acquired by managers. 2. The date reported in the study also indicate that learning events have a very specific and personal significance for the students. It is, therefore, necessary management teachers and trainers to provide ample opportunities for students to examine their own experiences. Management courses for experienced managers and for those who have no work experience have been criticized for being dominated by the teacher’s own specialization and perspective. The findings emphasize the need for learner-centered courses. 3. There is a increasing need for mangers to be self-reliant. If management education programs are help manager to become more self-reliant, the design of such programs must enhance a manager’s capacity and willingness to take control and responsibility for event articulacy for himself and has own learning. This can be achieved only if managers can develop insights into their own process of learning. Personal experiences and reflections on these experiences should be an explicit agenda in management development programs.