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History 1500 World History to 1500 The Crusades Joshua Gibson Introduction The Crusades were a time for Christians to do what they believed was right. In 1095 men were assembled to start one of the most debated topics of our day. What were the Crusades? Who started, and who finished? What were motives of these men? These questions are asked about the Crusades and often are not known. Then leads to the question everyone has. Were the Crusades Just pointless battles? Were they really Gods will? And after all these have been answered, the main question still remains. Were the Crusades a Success or were they a Failure? Key words to cover are Crusade- exert oneself continuously, vigorously, or obtrusively to gain an end or engage in a crusade for a certain cause or person; be an advocate for. Byzantine- the Byzantine Empire or Eastern Roman Empire was the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages. Christian- a religious person who believes Jesus is the Christ and who is a member of a Christian denomination. Muslim- a believer in or follower of Islam. Throughout this paper I will be discussing the topic of The Crusades, the timeline of The Crusades, and possibly find the facts and ability to answer the question. Were The Crusades a Success or were they a Failure? My belief is to be that The Crusades were a Failure. Not so much as the Christians always lost battles, but looking in on the purpose and the reasoning for doing it, the heart of the leaders and people of that time. Did they succeed or fail? In the body of this discussion we will go over some main parts of The Crusades. First we will discuss what they were, who was the first to start them, how they started and why they started. Then we will go through the Crusades themselves, a timeline of important events, covering the battles, the successes and failures and the areas fought. Finally to end we will go over the main question, if the Crusades were a success of a failure. The Beginning In 1095 an assembly of churchmen called by Pope Urban II met at Clermont, France. Messengers from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus had urged the pope to send help against the armies of Muslim Turks. On November 27 the pope addressed the assembly and asked the warriors of Europe to liberate the Holy Land from the Muslims. The response of the assembly was overwhelmingly favorable. Then was launched the first and most successful of at least eight crusades against the Muslim caliphates of the Near East. The word Crusade means in a literal sense, going to the Cross. The idea at the time was to urge Christian warriors to go to Palestine and free Jerusalem and other holy places from Muslim domination. A speech was given by Pope Urban II at Clermont. “O race of Franks…race chosen and beloved by God! From the confines of Jerusalem and from Constantinople a grievous report has gone forth… that a race from the kingdom of the Persians, an accused race, a race utterly alienated from God… has invaded the lands of [Eastern] Christians and has depopulated them by the sword, pillage, and fire…. The labor of avenging these wrongs [is placed]… upon you… Enter upon the road to the Holy Sepulchre; Wrest that land from the wicked race, and subject it to yourselves…..” Robert the monk, “The speech of Pope Urban II at Clermont,” trans. D. C. Munro, Translations and Reprints from the original Sources of European History, rev. ed. Series I, vol. 1, no. 2 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1902), pp. 5-8 After that speech was given in 1095 all of France were shouting, “It is the will of God! It is the will of God!” The response to his speech, to attack the Muslims in the Holy Land was tremendous. The Crusades were the result of this response given to the Byzantine emperor after he made an appeal to assist him against the Muslims. The Crusades worsened the European-Muslim relations, all it was doing was intensifying the religious fanaticism and producing a long lasting cultural prejudices. Reasons of why the crusades were started are as follows. First, the Pope hoped to unite the entire eastern Mediterranean and the divided Christian faith under the banner of the Latin Church. Second, the Italian city-states, with their large navies, hoped for commercial gains and were therefore keen supporters of the crusades. Third, the Byzantine Empire was in a severe decline and could no longer act as a buffer between the Muslim East and the Catholic West. And fourth, the Seljuk Turks, declining in military power, were no longer able to ensure the safety of the Christian pilgrims visiting the holy sites. By 1097 there were 30,000 knights ready to go on this crusade and secure the Holy Land for all Christendom while also reaping their share of money and glory. All reasons leading into the Crusades. The timeline of The Crusades is a lengthy one. There were few Wins and great Losses. Crusade Dates of Crusade First Crusade 1096 - 1099 Second Crusade 1144 -1155 Third Crusade 1187 -1192 Crusades Timeline of Events The People's Crusade - Freeing the Holy Lands. 1st Crusade led by Count Raymond IV of Toulouse and proclaimed by many wandering preachers, notably Peter the Hermit Crusaders prepared to attack Damascus. 2nd crusade led by Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and by King Louis VII of France 3rd Crusade led by Richard the Lionheart of Fourth Crusade 1202 -1204 The Children's Crusade 1212 Fifth Crusade 1217 - 1221 Sixth Crusade 1228 - 1229 Seventh Crusade Eighth Crusade 1248 - 1254 1270 Ninth Crusade 1271 - 1272 England, Philip II of France, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I. Richard I made a truce with Saladin 4th Crusade led by Fulk of Neuil French/Flemish advanced on Constantinople The Children's Crusade led by a French peasant boy, Stephen of Cloyes The 5th Crusade led by King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold VI of Austria, John of Brienne The 6th Crusade led by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II The 7th Crusade led by Louis IX of France The 8th Crusade led by Louis IX The 9th Crusade led by Prince Edward (later Edward I of England) The first Crusade The leaders of the First Crusade included some of the most distinguished representatives of European knighthood. Count Raymond of Toulouse headed a band of volunteers from Provence in southern France. Godfrey of Bouillon and his brother Baldwin commanded a force of French and Germans from the Rhinelands. Normandy sent Robert, William the Conqueror's son. The Normans from Italy and Sicily were led by Bohemond, and his nephew Tancred. The months which followed the Council of Clermont were marked by an epidemic of religious excitement in Western Europe. Popular preachers everywhere took up the cry "God wills it!" and urged their hearers to start for Jerusalem. A monk named Peter the Hermit aroused large parts of France with his passionate eloquence, as he rode from town to town, carrying a huge cross before him and preaching to vast crowds. In the summer of 1096 a horde of poor men, women, and children set out, unorganized and almost unarmed, on the road to the Holy Land. This was called the Peoples Crusade; it is also referred to as the Peasants Crusade. Dividing command of the mixed multitudes with a poor knight, called Walter the Penniless, and followed by a throng of about 80,000 persons, among whom were many women and children, Peter the Hermit set out for Constantinople leading the Peoples Crusade through an overland route through Germany and Hungary. Thousands of the Peoples Crusade fell in battle with the natives of the countries through which they marched, and thousands more perished miserably of hunger and exposure. The Peoples Crusade was badly organized - most of the people were unarmed and lacked the command and discipline of the military crusaders. The Byzantium emperor Alexius I sent his ragged allies as quickly as possible to Asia Minor, where most of them were slaughtered by the Turks. Those crusaders who crossed the Bosphorus were surprised by the Turks, and almost all of the Peoples Crusade were slaughtered, Peter the Hermit did survive. Reduced now to perhaps one-fourth of their original numbers, the crusaders advanced slowly to the city which formed the goal of all their efforts. When at length the Holy City burst upon their view, a perfect delirium of joy seized the crusaders. They embraced one another with tears of joy, and even embraced and kissed the ground on which they stood. As they passed on, they took off their shoes, and marched with uncovered head and bare feet, singing the words of the prophet: "Jerusalem, lift up thine eyes, and behold the liberator who comes to break thy chains." Before attacking it they marched barefoot in religious procession around the walls, with Peter the Hermit at their head. The first assault made by the Christians upon the walls of the city was repulsed; but the second was successful, and the city was in the hands of the crusaders by July 1099, almost 4 years later. Once inside the city, the crusaders massacred their enemies without mercy. For seven days the slaughter went on, at the end of which time scarcely any of the Muslim faith were left alive. The Christians took possession of the houses and property of the Muslim, each soldier having a right to that which he had first seized and placed his mark upon. This first Crusade was a success to the people leading the attack, yet the peoples Crusade was highly full of casualties. Many events took place to take the city Jerusalem. And countless People Perished, for the cause of “Gods Will” and for the cause of the Pope and leaders who were desiring to get rid of the “Muslim Infidel” There were many more crusades, and few that were actually successful. Jerusalem was eventually taken again and leads to a second crusade, and then a third where it didn’t end in a success or failure. Resource: http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/the-first-crusade.htm The Third Crusade The Third Crusade began in 1189 as an attempt to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. Egypt after 1169 was ruled by Saladin, who made it the object of his life to drive the Christian power from the eastern Mediterranean coast. Frederick Barbarossa who was the leader of this Crusade faced opposition from the Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelus, who had made a secret treaty with Saladin. Frederick passed through Byzantine land as quickly as possible, and captured the Seljuk capital of Iconium on May 18, 1189. Unfortunately for his crusade, the third crusade, the emperor drowned in the Saleph River on June 10, 1190. Although he had a larger army than Saladin, without his leadership his troops immediately began to break up, and those who remained were quickly defeated in battle when they reached Syria. Richard and Philip travelled by sea to the Holy Land in 1191. Philip had arrived at Tyre and allied himself with Conrad of Montferrat, who claimed the kingship of Jerusalem. The two besieged Acre in April, 1191, with help from the remnants of Frederick's army, and Richard arrived to take charge of the siege in June. Saladin's armies attempted to break the siege, but were turned away, and the city was taken on July 12. The three Christian commanders fought for power amongst themselves; Leopold V of Austria, the German commander, wanted to be recognized equally with Richard and Philip, but Richard removed Leopold's banner from the city. Philip, also frustrated with Richard, left the Holy Land in August. On August 22, Richard executed the 3000 Muslim prisoners he still had in his custody at Acre, when he felt Saladin was not honoring the terms of Acre's surrender. Richard then decided to take the port of Jaffa, which he would need to launch an attack on Jerusalem; while on the march, Saladin attacked him at Arsuf in September, but Richard won. By January of 1192, Richard was ready to march on Jerusalem, but Saladin had reinforced his army and fortified the city. Richard came within sight of Jerusalem twice, but each time retreated in the face of Saladin's larger army. Saladin then attempted to retake Jaffa in July, but was defeated by Richard's now much smaller force on July 31. On September 2, 1192, Richard and Saladin finalized a treaty by which Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control, but which also allowed unarmed Christian pilgrims to visit the city. Richard left for England at the end of September, ending The Third Crusade. The Result in the Third Crusade was a success because a treaty was signed and the war stopped. They let the Pilgrims still come into the holy sites unharmed. But they were a failure in the eyes of the leaders, the reason that brought on the fourth crusade 6 years later. The fourth Crusade happened and was a failure once more. Then another Crusade after the fourth procceeded that was most horrible to the parents all over France and other countries. Resource: http://www.crusades-history.com/The-Third-Crusade.aspx The Children’s Crusade One day in May 1212 there appeared at Saint-Denis, where King Philip of France was holding his court, a shepherd-boy of about twelve years old called Stephen, from the small town of Cloyes in the Orléannais. He brought with him a letter for the King, which he said, had been given to him by Christ in person, who had appeared to him as he was tending his sheep and who had bidden him go and preach the Crusade. King Philip was not impressed by the child and told him to go home. But Stephen, whose enthusiasm had been fired by his mysterious visitor, saw himself now as an inspired leader who would succeed where his elders had failed. For the past fifteen years preachers had been going round the country-side urging a Crusade against the Muslims of the East or of Spain. It was easy for a young boy to be infected with the idea that he too could be a preacher and could emulate Peter the Hermit. Undismayed by the King's indifference, he began to preach at the very entrance to the abbey of Saint-Denis and to announce that he would lead a band of children to the rescue of Christendom. The seas would dry up before them, and they would pass, like Moses through the Red Sea, safe to the Holy Land. He was gifted with an extraordinary eloquence. Older folk were impressed, and children came to his call. After his first success he set out round France summoning the children; and many of his converts went further to work on his behalf. They were all to meet together at Vendôme in about a month and start out from there to the East. Towards the end of June the children arrived at Vendome. There were thirty thousand, not one over twelve years of age, collected from all parts of the country, some of them simple peasants, whose parents in many cases had willingly let them go on their great mission. But there were also boys of noble birth who had slipped away from home to join Stephen and his following of "minor prophets" as the chroniclers called them. There were also girls amongst them, a few young priests, and a few older pilgrims, some drawn by kindness, others, perhaps, from pity. The bands came crowding into the town. The town could not contain them all, and they encamped in the fields outside. The expedition split into two parties. The first twenty thousand was led by Stephen himself. It set out up the Rhine to Basle and through western Switzerland, past Geneva, to cross the Alps by Mont Cenis pass. It was an arduous journey for the children, and their losses were heavy. Less than a third of the company that left Cologne appeared before the walls of Genoa, at the end of August, and demanded a night's shelter within its walls. The Genoese authorities were ready at first to welcome the pilgrims, but on second thoughts they suspected a German plot. They would allow them to stay for one night only; but any who wished to settle permanently in Genoa were invited to do so. The children, expecting the sea to divide before them next morning, were content. But next morning the sea was as impervious to their prayers as it had been to the French at Marseilles. In their disillusion many of the children at once accepted the Genoese offer and became Genoese citizens, forgetting their pilgrimage, But Nicholas and the greater number moved on. The sea would open for them elsewhere. A few days later they reached Pisa. There two ships bound for Palestine agreed to take several of the children; nothing is known of their fate. Nicholas, however, still awaited a miracle, and trudged on with his faithful followers in Rome. At Rome, the Pope received them. He was moved by their goodness but embarrassed by their foolishness. With kindly firmness he told them that they must now go home. Little is known of the return journey. Many of the children, especially the girls, stayed behind in some Italian town or village. Only a few stragglers found their way back next spring to the Rhineland, but the angry parents whose children had perished insisted on the arrest of Stephens his father, who had, it seems, encouraged the boy out of vainglory. He was taken and hanged. Many from this Crusade were devastated. They lost their children and not just from death. This was yet not the end of the Crusades. There have yet to be four more in a failing effort to happen. The following description of the Children's Crusade is taken from Steven Runciman's classic three volume work, A History of the Crusades (Cambridge, 1951), Volume III: The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades, pp.139-144. Paul Halsall has included an excerpt from the Chronica Regiae Coloniensis at the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Last Chapter in the Crusades The next 5 Crusades were all in vain. They were well fought battles but a failure. Leopold VI of Austria and Andrew II of Hungary participated in the Fifth Crusade. They captured the city of Damietta, but after their devastating loss at the Battle of al-Mansura, they were forced to return it. Ironically, before their defeat they were offered control of Jerusalem and other Christian sites in Palestine in exchange for the return of Damietta, but Cardinal Pelagius refused and turned a potential victory into a stunning defeat. The sixth Crusade was a failure as in military status, but a success by a peace treaty giving Christians control over some of Jerusalem. It was led by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, King of Jerusalem through his marriage to Yolanda, daughter of John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem. Led by King Louis IX of France, the Seventh Eighth and Ninth Crusades were very much a failure. In the Seventh Crusade Louis sailed to Egypt in 1248 and recaptured Damietta, but after he and his army were routed he had to return it as well as a massive ransom just to get free. In 1270 he set off on the Eighth Crusade, landing in North Africa in the hope of converting the sultan of Tunis to Christianity but died before he got far. Led by King Edward I of England in 1271 who tried to join Louis in Tunis, the Ninth Crusade would fail in the end. Edward arrived after Louis had died and moved against the Mamluk sultan Baibers. He didn't achieve much, though, and returned home to England after he learned that his father Henry III had died. Resource-http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/christian/blchron_xian_crusades11.htm Success or Failure All in all, and in the whole grand scheme of things. The Crusades were a complete and utter failure. As far as the reasons they were doing it. The result of acting gin those reasons and the basically stupid things they did in the midst of the whole thing. They acted in the “Will of God” but acted by the “Will of Man.” They killed when there wasn’t a reason to kill. They plundered and stole and wanted land and other people’s things to themselves. That is not acting in any will of God. In the eyes of them who led attacks and wanted all these things for themselves, the crusades were a fantastic failure. There were at least two crusades that actually won, or did anything worth celebrating about. Some of the successes were treaties and not actual wins in battles. And although all the failures were happening people found time to plunder and steal. So in conclusion to the failures, the leaders and the religion and people of importance saw a failure. Successes that came from the Crusades were few but also had a lasting effect on the people and culture of both sides. Though the Crusades lasted for many years, the actual amount of fighting was reasonably small. Of the 174 years of the Crusades, only 24 involved fighting and not all of the 24 years were spent fighting. Therefore, there was much to be made by trading with each other. The below list gives an indication of how Western Europe benefited. The Muslim obtained from the west linen and woolen cloth. There were years when trade between the two sides was very good Rice, coffee, sherbet, dates, apricots, lemons, sugar, spices such as Food products ginger, melons, rhubarb and dates. Mirrors, carpets, cotton cloth for clothing, ships compasses, writing Household goods paper, wheelbarrows, mattresses and shawls. chess, Arabic figures 0 to 9, pain killing drugs, algebra, irrigation, New ideas chemistry, the colour scarlet, water wheels and water clocks The Crusades had a major impact on the building of castles. Many large castles were built in Wales (such as Beaumaris, Conway and and Caernarvon) by Edward I. He had been on a crusade and it is probable that he learned about castle improvements as a result of his experiences. The Muslims built in a scientific manner using the area a castle was built in for its maximum potential. Conclusion The conclusion of this whole subject is that, The Crusades didn’t need to happen. As I see it, and as I have read over the information. The Crusades were a failure, though had some good things come out of the results and in the end. Too many innocent lives were lost that had no reason to be lost. It seemed the real reason was to gain power, gain stature, gain more money and to show the “Muslim Infidel” who was boss. The leaders of the whole thing would have been better off leaving the name of God out of this. And to just say they were greedy. For how many Crusades there were and how many of them were actually a success, you can see that they had some different plan in mind than to “free the holy Land”. People say that it was strictly because of Power and Money. Some people believe it was for the safety of the pilgrims coming into the country, to help them get to the holy sites. And you always have the belief that God Will it. But in my eyes, I see it as the power seeking people not being satisfied by their own estate, insomuch that they desired others. And doing what they can to take it, and Failing.