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NAME: __________________________________ PERIOD: ____________
DATE: ___________________________________
Chapter 11: From the Crusades to New Muslim Empires (Guided Notes)
11.1 Introduction
A. You will learn about the Crusades, a series of religious wars launched against
B. The Crusades began in ____________________________________________
C. _________________ (The Holy Land) was the land between Egypt and Syria
1. Ancient homeland of the Jews
2. Where Jesus Christ lived
3. _____________was the spiritual heart to Jews, Christians and Muslims
D. In the 11th century, Palestine came under Muslim rule by the ______________
E. The Byzantine Empire asked _______________________________for help.
11.2 Events leading up to the Crusades
A. _________________________conquered Palestine in the seventh century
B. Muslims built a shrine in Jerusalem called the ________________________
to mark the spot where they believed Muhammad rose to heaven.
C. Jews, Christians, and Muslims lived in peace in Palestine until
D. In 1055, the Seljuk Turks took control of the
E. The Turks took control of Syria and Palestine from the __________________
F. In 1071, the Turks defeated a Byzantine army and took control of __________
11.3 The Story of the Crusades
A. In 1095, Pope Urban II called ______________________________________
to a council in Clermont, France.
1. The purpose of the Crusade was to _____________________________
2. He promised entry to heaven to all _____________________________
3. Nobles, knights, townspeople, craftsmen and peasants joined the fight.
a. Merchants saw an opportunity ___________________________
NAME: __________________________________ PERIOD: ____________
DATE: ___________________________________
b. __________________________________ hoped to gain estates
in the Holy Land
B. The First Crusade (1096 – 1099)
1. ____________________________led the Crusade
2. ____________________________crusaders marched
3. In July 1099, _______________________surrendered to the crusaders
4. Muslims and Jews were _______________________________
5. Four crusader kingdoms were established
a. _______________________________________________
b. _______________________________________________
c. _______________________________________________
d. _______________________________________________
6. The Muslims were defeated because they lacked __________________
7. The Seljuk Empire was breaking apart into ______________________
C. The Second Crusade (1146 – 1148)
1. In 1144, a united Muslim force _____________________________,
the capital of the northernmost crusader kingdom
2. The German crusaders were beaten in _________________________
3. The French marched on the city of _________________________and
was defeated by the Muslims.
4. The Second Crusade ended in ________________________________
D. The Third Crusade (1189 – 1192)
1. The great sultan, __________________________, called Saladin by
Europeans united Egypt, Syria, and the lands to the east into a Muslim empire.
2. __________________, Salah al-Din captured Jerusalem
3. _________________________________, known as Richard the
Lionheart, led the Third Crusade.
4. Richard fought his way to Jerusalem
5. In September 1192, Salah al-Din and Richard signed a _____________
a. Crusaders kept a ______________________________along the
Palestine coast
NAME: __________________________________ PERIOD: ____________
DATE: ___________________________________
b. ________________________were granted entry into Jerusalem
E. Later Crusades
1. The crusades continued for another __________________________.
2. None of the later crusades ________________in recapturing Jerusalem
3. In 1291, the Muslims took ________________, the last crusader city,
ending Christian kingdoms in the Holy Land
F. The Reconquests
1. The Reconquista were ________________________________to drive
the Muslims out of Spain
2. Muslims, Christians and Jews lived in peace in the_________________
, but non-Muslims had to pay a special tax.
3. In 1002, the ___________________________________broke up into
rival kingdoms.
4. Christians took advantage of the Muslim weaknesses and began
______________________________the peninsula.
5. In 1139, ________________became an independent Christian kingdom
6. In the 1400s, Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand wanted to unite Spain
as a ______________________________________.
7. ____________________________________sought to destroy rival
religions in the area.
8. In 1492, _________________________, the last Muslim stronghold
fell and Muslims left the peninsula.
9. __________________________Jews were force to leave their homes
10. ______________________Muslims were expelled from Spain
11.4 Christians and the Crusades
A. Impact on Christians as a Group
1. Crusaders were wounded, killed in battle, died from disease and
2. The Crusades changed the___________________________________.
a. There was a demand for money to pay the crusaders
b. _____________________________________began to increase
NAME: __________________________________ PERIOD: ____________
DATE: ___________________________________
c. Kings started _________________________________________
3. Monarchs grew more powerful, ending _________________________
4. Crusaders were introduced to new foods and other goods
11.5 Muslims and the Crusades
A. Impact on Muslims as a Group
1. Muslims _________________________________________________
2. Crusaders destroyed ________________________________________
3. Muslim merchants earned riches from __________________________
4. The crusades brought ______________________________as Muslims
banded together to fight their common foe.
5. Muslims lost their lands in the Iberian Peninsula.
11.6 Jews and the Crusades
A. Impact on Jews as a Group
1. As crusaders marched across Europe, they ___________________
2. ________________________________, or prejudice against Jews,
spread across Europe.
3. In 1290, England expelled all Jews
4. In 1394, France expelled all Jews
5. Jews were segregated and forced to live in_______________________
11.7 The Mongol Invasion
A. By the mid 1200s, _____________________began invading Muslim lands
B. ________________________conquered northern China and then turned west.
C. The Mongols killed hundreds of thousands of Muslims
D. The Mongols defeated the _________________________________________
E. In 1258, they destroyed Baghdad and killed the caliph, ending the
F. ________________________, Muslims of Turkish descent, controlled Egypt.
1. ___________the Mamluks defeated the Mongols in a battle in Palestine.
2. The Malmuks ruled Palestine, Egypt, Syria, Arabia, and parts of
Anatolia until ______________________
NAME: __________________________________ PERIOD: ____________
DATE: ___________________________________
I. By the end of the 1200s, the Mongols converted to ___________________
11.8 New Muslim Empires and the Expansion of Islam
A. The Ottoman Empire
1. In the early 1300s, Osman I started the ______________________in
northern Anatolia and southeastern Europe.
2. In 1453, the Ottomans captured __________________________
bringing an end to the Byzantine Empire.
a. Constantinople was renamed _______________________ and
became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
3. In the 1500s, the Ottomans destroyed the Mamluk Empire
B. The Safavid Empire
1. In 1501, Muslims in Persia founded the _________________________
2. The Ottomans were ______________________and the Safavids were
C. The Mughal Empire
1. In 1526, _________________________, a descendant of Genghis
Khan, founded the Mughal Empire.
2. Mughal emperors ruled most of ________________until after 1700
D. Further Spread of Islam
1. Muslims in North Africa carried Islam south to __________________.
2. Islam spread to __________________________________________
3. By the late 1200s, there were Muslim kingdoms on the islands of
11.9 Chapter Summary
A. In this chapter you learned about the Crusades
B. You learned about the Mongol invasion
C. You learned about several Muslim empires
NAME: __________________________________ PERIOD: ____________
DATE: ___________________________________
1. sultan – ___________________________________________________________
2. Anatolia – ________________________________________________________
3. ransom – _________________________________________________________
4. Iberian Peninsula – _________________________________________________
5. Inquisition – _______________________________________________________
6. expulsion – ________________________________________________________
7. synagogue – _______________________________________________________
8. anti-Semitism – ____________________________________________________
9. segregation – ______________________________________________________
10. shah – ___________________________________________________________