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Appendicular Skeleton- Hind Limb
Connected to the axial skeleton at sacroiliac joint
Pelvic Limb:
• Pelvis
– Ilium
– Pubis
– Ischium
Tarsal bones (tarsus)
Metatarsal bones
• Develops as three separate bones that fuse
• 2 sides halves join at the pelvic/pubic
• Socket of ball and socket joint is the
– _____________
• Cranial most bone of pelvis
• “Wings of the ilium” dogs and cats.
• “Tuber coxae ” cattle and horses
– _____________
• Most caudal pelvic bone
• Tailbone is ischial tuberosity.
– _____________
• Smallest of the pelvic bones
• Proximal end: head forms hip
joint, greater _______________
is where muscles attach.
• Distal end: medial and lateral
condyles which form the
_____________ (knee)
– The trochlea is between the
condyles and contains a groove
that the patella fits in.
• Kneecap is largest ___________ bone in the body.
• In the distal tendon of the ____________ femoris muscle
• Helps to protect tendon as it passes down over the trochlea of
the femur.
• Patellar luxation: when trochlear groove is not deep enough to
contain patella so it slips in and out of place.
• Two small __________ bones located in the proximal
gastrocnemius (calf muscle).
– Located cranial to the femoral condyles.
• Not present in cattle or horses.
• Forms stifle joint proximally.
• Forms ___________ (ankle) distally with tarsal
• Tibial _______________ continues distally
down the femur as the tibial crest, where
patellar tendon attaches.
• Medial __________ is medial to distal articular
surface and is called “knob” of ankle.
• Forms stifle joint proximally.
• Does not support significant weight.
• Complete in dogs and cats. Horses and
cattle do not have shaft of fibula.
• Forms lateral ____________ at distal end.
Tibia (shin)
• aka ankle or “hock”
• Consists of two rows of tarsal bones
(similar to carpal bones in wrist).
– Proximal row: tibial tarsal (with
______________), fibular tarsal (with
______________), and central tarsal bone
– Distal row is numbered from medial to lateral
• Calcaneal tuberosity forms the point of the
hock. Site of attachment for tendon of the
gastrocnemius muscle (aka _____________
Tarsal Bones
• Almost identical to
– exception: dogs and
cats usually only
have metatarsals II –
• Horses/Cattle same
as front leg.
Almost identical to
phalanges on
thoracic limb
exception: dogs and
cats usually only
have digits II – V
same as front leg.
• Bones that form in soft organs (___________)
• Are not found in every animal
• Examples
– os cordis: in heart of cattle and sheep that supports the valves
– os penis: in penis of dogs, beaver, raccoons, and walruses that partially
surrounds the urethra
– os rostri: in nose of swine that strengthens snout for rooting/digging
Visceral Skeleton
• Junctions between bones
• Can be moveable or immovable.
• Arthro and articular refer to joints.
• 3 Types of joints:
– Fibrous Joints
• Immovable; joined by fibrous tissue
• Sutures of skull bones, splint bones
in horses
– Cartilaginous Joints
• Slightly moveable
• Vertebral disks between vertebrae,
Pelvic and mandibular symphyses
– Synovial Joints
• Freely moveable
• Shoulder, stifle, elbow, etc
Characteristics of Synovial Joints
• ________________ cartilage covering
articular surfaces
• Fluid-filled joint cavity (joint space)
• Enclosed by a joint ____________
– Synovial membrane- outer membrane
that produces:
• Synovial fluid- lubricates joint
• Ligaments – fibrous (_____________)
connective tissue that join bones to other
Synovial Joint Movements
• Flexion and Extension
– Increase (extension) or decrease (flexion)
angle between two bones
• Adduction and Abduction
– Move an extremity toward (Adduction) or
away from (Abduction) medial plane
• Rotation
– Twisting movement of a part on its own
• Circumduction
– Movement of an extremity so that the
distal end moves in a circle
Types of Synovial Joints
Hinge Joints
– Only capable of flexion and extension
Gliding Joints
– Rocking motion of one joint surface
on another
– Primarily capable of flexion and
Pivot Joints
– One bone rotates on another
Ball-and-socket joints
– Allow for all joint movements