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All cells are not alike. Just like in life
everyone has a job to do!!
Roots have the job of absorbing water and dissolving nutrients.
Roots also anchor plants to the ground. Roots help the plant grow.
Cells divide at the root tip or root cap. These cells are called apical
meristems. These cells are not completely specialized just yet. But this
is where the plant grows from. The meristem tissue is the only place
mitosis takes place in plants.
Stems have three important functions- 1. They produce leaves , branches, and
flowers. 2. They hold leaves up to the sunlight. 3. They transport substances
between roots and leaves. Stems are very similar to the human body. We have
veins, arteries , and capillaries. Plants have xylem and phloem. Xylem and
phloem are the transport systems of the plant. Xylem transports water
upward from the roots. Phloem transports carbohydrates and nutrients
produced by photosynthesis.
The main job of leaves is to absorb light and carry out the process of photosynthesis.
Leaves are complex. They have a covering called the cuticle. It is a waxy covering that
prevents water loss. It is located on both sides of the leaf. The epidermis is layer under
the cuticle. Epidermis is another name for skin. Photosynthesis takes place primarily in
the mesophyll. It is directly under the epidermis. Under the epidermis the cell has it
transport system of xylem (water) and phloem (nutrients). Plants also breath and go to
the bathroom. The place where this occurs is called the stoma or stomata. They are
little openings on the underside of leaves. They are like little mouths that open and
close when needed. When a plant get to much water this is where it leaves from. When
photosynthesis occurs CO2 is used. Oxygen leaves through the stomata. The stomata
opens and closes. The cells that close the stomata are called guard cells.
Red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of the
body. They also carry carbon dioxide back to the
lungs. The blood does not have a nucleus. Blood
cells do not have many mitochondria. The do not
need very much energy (ATP) to carryout their
1. Skeletal muscles are for movement. They are usually attached to
bones. Skeletal muscles are voluntary. That means we are in control of
moving them. They also use a lot of ATP or energy. There are a lot of
mitochondria found here.
2. Smooth muscles cells are not voluntary. We do not control them.
Stomach, blood vessels, and intestines contain smooth muscle cells.
These cells also have a lot of mitochondria. They need a lot of ATP
as well.
3. Cardiac cells are found only in the heart. The heart is a muscle. It
never stops. We are not in control of it. So that makes it involuntary.
Soooo this also means that it has a lot of mitochondria as well. It
need a lot of ATP.
Epithelial cells cover the glands and tissues that cover the
interior and exterior body surfaces. They are part of the
integumentary system. This is also called the Epidermis
or Skin. The epithelial cells protect the body. They do not
require a lot of energy. Sooo that means that they do not
have large amounts of mitochondria. They do not need as
much ATP as skeletal and smooth muscle cells do.
The nerve cells are called neurons. Neurons carry
electrical impulses from your body to your brain. They are
very specialized. They do not regenerate themselves. Once
they are dead they are dead. Impulses travel between
neurons at the synapse. The long tails of the cells are
called axons and the little extensions on the main cell
body are called dendrites. Neurons do have a nucleus.