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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system around
and inside the brain and spinal cord. The CSF occupies the space between the Arachnoid and the Pia . It constitutes the
content of all intra-cerebral, cisterns, and Sulci as well as the central canal of the spinal cord.
1. It acts as a "cushion" or buffer for the cortex, providing a basic mechanical and immunological protection to the
brain inside the skull.
2. It is produced in the Choroid plexus.
3. 70% of CSF is produced in the brain by modified ependymal cells in the choroid plexus, and the remainder is
formed around blood vessels and along ventricular walls. It circulates from the lateral ventricles to the foramen
of Monro , third ventricle, aqueduct of Sylvius , fourth ventricle, foramina of Magendie and foramina of Luschka
;subarachnoid space over brain and spinal cord; re absorption into venous sinus blood via Arachnoid
4. The CSF is produced at a rate of 500 ml/day. Since the brain can contain only 135 to 150 ml, large amounts are
drained primarily into the blood through Arachnoid granulations in the superior sagittal sinus.
5. The CSF contains approximately 0.3% plasma proteins, or approximately 15 to 40 mg/dL, depending on sampling
CSF pressure ranges from 80 to 100 mmH2O (780–980 Pa or 4.4–7.3 mmHg) in newborns, 200 mmH20 in normal
children and adults.
7. Functions of CSF include Buoyancy, Protection, Chemical stability, Prevention of brain ischemia etc.