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2.7: Biotic and Abiotic Influences on the Ecosystem pg. 52 Key Concepts: 4. Human activities influence biogeochemical cycles such as the water and carbon cycles. 5. Ecosystems are composed of biotic and abiotic components. Evidence of Learning: Students can … - list abiotic factors important to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. - give examples of predation, competition, mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism. - define carrying capacity and tolerance range. Influence of Abiotic Factors Limiting Factor: is any factor that restricts the size of the population. Tolerance Range: The abiotic conditions within which a species can survive. Figure 1: species can be successful over a range of abiotic conditions. However, they will become stressed and will die out if conditions exceed their tolerance level. Figure 3: The distribution of black spruce Table 1: Key Abiotic Factors of Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems and the Effects Human Activities Can Have on Them Ecosystem Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Key Abiotic Factors Light Availability Water Availability Nutrient Availability Temperature Light Availability Nutrient Availability Acidity Temperature Salinity Human action and result Influence of Biotic Factors - The ability for a species to live in a given ecosystems can be determined by abiotic factors. - Biotic factors involve the interactions between individuals - Competition for limiting resources between the same species (Intraspecific) and different species (Interspecific) can impact survival of individuals. - Other interactions, such as; predation, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism also influence species success rate. Table 2: Key Types and Examples of Species Interaction Relationships Competition Definitions Two individuals vie for the same resource One individual feeds on another Predation Mutualism Two individuals benefiting each other Parasitism One individual lives on or in and feeds on a host organism One individual benefits and the Commensalism other neither benefits nor is harmed Examples Carrying Capacity Carrying Capacity: the maximum population size of a particular species that a given ecosystem can sustain. - The upper sustainable limit of an ecosystem can support is called its Carrying Capacity. - When populations increases, the demand for resource will increase. Organisms will have to compete for these resources, which will limit their success rate, and are now known as limiting resources. - Carry Capacity is dynamic, always changing. Humans can be a factor in an ecosystems carrying capacity, causing it to change. Check Your Learning Questions 1 – 8, page 55 Summary: - Many factors place limits on the sizes of populations in an ecosystem. - Tolerance ranges describe the physical conditions under which a species can survive. - The type of ecosystem that occurs is a particular location is strongly influenced by abiotic factors such as light, water, and temperature. - Species interactions include competition, predation, mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism. - Carrying capacity is the maximum population size that an ecosystem can sustain.