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Chapter 8: A New Nation (1789-1800) Chapter 9: The Jefferson Era (1800-1816) Chapter 10: Growth & Expansion (1790-1823) •The inauguration of George Washington took place at Federal Hall in New York on the island of Manhattan . •Washington choose four men to be in his “cabinet” . This cabinet would help to advise him on decisions in specific areas. •These men were: Thomas Jefferson: Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton: Secretary of the Treasury Henry Knox: Secretary of War Edmund Randolph: Attorney General National Debt: •The new nation faced serious financial problems. This problem of debt was handled by Alexander Hamilton(The Secretary of the Treasury). •He proposed that the new government pay off this debt owed to other governments and individual American citizens. •This decision did not sit well with some states. Many had already paid their debt. In order to win support for this proposal Hamilton had to compromise with the Southern States. •This decision to compromise led to the building of our nations capital in Washington, D.C. This was along the banks of the Potomac River in Maryland. • Hamilton’s taxes led to a rebellion in Western Pennsylvania. • The farmers were in an uproar over paying a special tax on the whiskey they made from surplus corn. • This armed protest alarmed government leaders, recalling what happened with the Shay’s Rebellion. • President Washington learned from this past experience that this rebellion must be crushed if this new nation was to survive. • Washington personally led an army of 13,000 soldiers to crush the challenge. • The rebellion collapsed as soon as the army crossed the Appalachian Mountains. Date: 1789 The first Congress had to decide how to set up the nation’s court system. • The Judiciary Act 1789 established a federal court system with 13 district courts and 3 circuit courts • State laws with regard to legal decisions would remain, however the federal courts would have the power to reverse state decisions • The Supreme Court would be the final authority on many issues. • Washington nominated John jay as the chief justice of the Supreme Court. With the Judiciary Act, Congress had taken the final steps toward creating a strong and independent judiciary December, 1791 • Americans had long feared a strong central government. • Some citizens thought that the best protection of individual rights lay in strong state governments. • Others insisted that the Constitution needed to include specific statements guaranteeing personal liberties. • James Madison, of Virginia, presented a list of individual liberties to Congress. • In December 1791, these 10 Amendments were added to the Constitution and became known as the Bill of Rights. April 1, 1796 • In the spring of 1796, Washington announced he would not seek a third term in office. • By choosing to serve only two terms, Washington set a precedent that later presidents would follow. • In Washington’s “Farewell Address” he expressed his concerns about divisions in American politics and with what he considered a grave danger to the new nation ---the growth of political parties. Footnotes to History: Washington died on December 14, 1799. He became ill with what was probably pneumonia. • By the mid-1790’s, two distinct political parties had taken shape. 1796 Federalists • Washington had denounced political parties in his “Farewell Address”. He warned that they would divide the nation. Democratic-Republicans • The name Federalist was first used to • The efforts to turn public opinion against describe supporters of the the Federalists began in 1791 when Constitution. Philip Freneu began publishing the • By the 1790’s the word was applied National Gazette. to a the group of people who • Thomas Jefferson helped the newspaper supported the polices of Alexander get started. Hamilton. • The Republicans wanted to leave as • Generally, Federalists stood for a much power as possible to the state vigorous federal government. governments. • They feared that a strong federal government would endanger people’s liberties. March 4, 1797 • John Adams became the second president of the United States on March 4, 1797. • The new president was from the state of Massachusetts. He was a Federalist. He vice president was Thomas Jefferson. He worked with the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence. He was an original signer of both the Declaration of Independence and Constitution. He served one term in office from 1797-1801. • He was 61 years of age when he was elected. His occupation(job) was a teacher and lawyer. • President Adams was reserved and somewhat rigid, he felt more comfortable with ideas than with people. The XYZ Affair • Early in his administration, President Adams faced a crisis France. The French regarded Jay’s Treaty, signed in 1794, as an American attempt to help the British in their war with France. • To punish the United States, the French seized American ships that carried cargo to Britain. Adams wanted to avoid war with France. • In the fall of 1797, he sent a delegation to Paris to try to resolve the dispute. French foreign minister Charles de Talleyrand, however refused to meet with the Americans. Instead, Talleyrand, sent three agents who demanded a bribe and a loan for France from the Americans. • “Not a sixpence,” the Americans replied and sent a report of the incident to the United States. Adams was furious! Referring to the French agents as X, Y, Z. The president urged Congress to prepare for war. The incident became known as the XYZ Affair. Alien & Sedition Acts • The threat of war with France made Americans more suspicious of aliens. The word aliens refer to immigrants living in the country who were not citizens. • Many Europeans who came to the United States in the 1790s endorsed the ideals of the French Revolution. Some Americans questioned whether these aliens would remain loyal in the event of a war with France. • Federalists in Congress responded with strict laws to protect the nations security. In 1798 they passed a group of measures known as the Alien and Sedition acts. • Sedition refers to activities aimed at weakening established government. Adams had not asked for these laws, but he went along with the Federalist majority in Congress. March 4, 1801 • Thomas Jefferson became the third President of the United States on March 4, 1801. • The president was from the state of Virginia. He was a Republican. He was the vice president to John Adams. He worked on the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson was in the first cabinet to George Washington and held the office of Secretary State. • Jefferson was 57 years old when elected. occupation(job) was a planter/farmer and lawyer. His • Jefferson believed in a wise and frugal government and supported strong state governments. • Jefferson also believed in a policy called “laissez-faire”. This meant that the government plays only a small part in the economic concerns of a country. • In Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court for the first time exercised its right to review and rule on acts of the other branches of government. • Chief Justice John Marshall was the individual in charge of the Supreme Court for this decision. • This exercised right is known as judicial review. This power has become a basic part of the system of checks and balances of our government . 1803 • Prior to the 1700’s people working in their homes or in workshops made cloth and most other goods. Using had tools, they produced furniture, farm equipment, household items, and clothing. • In the mid 1700’s, however, the way goods were made began to change. These changes appeared first in Great Britain. British inventors created machinery to perform some of the work involved in cloth making, such as spinning. The machines ran on waterpower, so British cloth makers built mills along rivers and installed the machines in these mills. • People left their homes and farms to work in the mills. This meant a new way of working as well as a new way of producing goods. The changes this system brought about were so great that this time in history is known as the Industrial Revolution. • The Industrial Revolution began to take root in the United States around the 1800’s, appearing first in New England. The New England statesMassachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, and New Hampshireoffered ideal conditions for the development of factories. New England’s poor soil made it difficult to farm. As a result, people were willing to leave their farms to find work elsewhere. New England had many rushing rivers and streams, which provided the necessary waterpower to run the machines. • In 1800 the territory of the United States extended only as far west as the Mississippi River. The area to the west of the river----was known as the Louisiana Territory---belonged to Spain. It was an enormous area of land, anchored to the south by the city of New Orleans and extending west to the Rocky Mountains. • The Spanish allowed American pioneers to travel up and down the river. Many pioneers settled down and established farms along the rivers fed into the upper Mississippi River. They needed the river to ship their crops to markets. • The Spanish also allowed farmers to sail on the lower Mississippi and trade in New Orleans. For the western farmers, this right was vital. • Suddenly in 1802 the Spanish changed their policy and refused to allow American goods to move into or past New Orleans. • That same year President Jefferson learned that Spain and France had made a secret agreement to transfer the Louisiana Territory to France. • This agreement posed a series threat to the United States. France’s leader Napoleon Bonaparte, had plans for an empire in Europe and in the Americas. • As a result President Jefferson authorized U.S. Ambassador to France(Robert Livingston) to offer $10 million dollars for the port of New Orleans and West Florida. • Napoleon was forced to abandon his plans for an American Empire due to the revolt on the island of Santo Domingo(Haiti and the Dominican Republic). As a result of this situation, the French were stunned by their losses and feared that the British may ask the Americans to join forces against them. Also France needed money to finance Napoleon’s plans for war with Britain. The French believed they had something for sale and that the United States might want to buy it! • The French foreign minister Charles de Talleyrand informed the Americans that the whole Louisiana Territory was for sale! James Monroe and Livingston were completely surprised. This was a deal to good to pass up! President Jefferson approved of the $15 Million Dollar Purchase through the use of the federal government’s treaty-making powers. • President Jefferson wanted to know more about the mysterious lands west of the Mississippi River. To head the expedition, Jefferson choose 28 year old Merriweather Lewis. Lewis was Jefferson’s personal secretary and well qualified to lead this journey of exploration. The expedition’s co-leader was William Clark, 32, a friend of Lewis’s from his military experience. • The expedition left St. Louis in the spring of 1804, slowly working its way up the Missouri River. Lewis and Clark kept a journal of their voyage, making notes on what they saw and did. They camped in present day Bismarck, North Dakota and hired a French trader that was married to a Shoshone women named Sacagawea. When the group finally reached the Rocky mountains, Sacagawea was instrumental in navigating this difficult area, which were her native lands. • The expedition finally reached the Pacific Ocean at the mouth of the Columbia River in November 1805, after 18 months and nearly 4,000 miles of travel. They established Fort Clatsop at this point and returned to St. Louis in 1806. • James Madison became the fourth President of the United States on March 4, 1809. He served as President until March 11, 1817. • He is hailed as the “Father of the Constitution” for being instrumental in the drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and author of the United States Bill of Rights. After the Constitution had been drafted, Madison became one of the leaders to ratify it. His collaboration with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay produced the Federalist Papers in (1788). These papers became one of the most important pieces to rally support for the Constitution’s ratification amongst the Thirteen Original Colonies. • James Madison did not take office as president under the most favorable conditions. Following in the imposing footsteps of President Jefferson was not an easy task. In addition,the United States was stuck in the middle of embargo crisis and Britain continued to claim the right to halt American ships, and cries for war with Britain grew louder and louder from the “War Hawks”. • After his election to the presidency, he presided over renewed prosperity for several years. As president (1809–17), after the failure of diplomatic protests and a trade embargo against Great Britain, he led the nation into the War of 1812. • He was responding to British encroachments on American honor and rights; in addition, he wanted to end the influence of the British among their Indian allies, whose resistance blocked United States settlement in the Midwest around the Great Lakes. • Madison found the war to be an administrative nightmare, as the United States had neither a strong army nor financial system; as a result, he afterward supported a stronger national government and a strong military, as well as the national bank, which he had long opposed. The War Ends: American and British representatives signed the Treaty of Ghent in 1814 ending the war. In the end, the War achieved nothing for either side. The treaty did not change any existing borders. In Europe there was a big result, Napolean had been defeated finally, by the British. There was one more battle to be fought in the America’s between the British and the United States. •However, the news of the treaty did not arrive in time to North America prior to a final ferocious battle which occurred in New Orleans. •Led by General Andrew Jackson the Americans achieved a decisive and bloody victory at New Orleans and ended the War of 1812 over the British very positively! •With this victory there were candlelight parades, fireworks, and public prayers. The War brought a new spirit of nationalism throughout the country! •Americans felt pride in their new country and more equal in their relationship with their former homeland! • James Monroe became the fifth President of the United States on March 4, 1817. He served as President until March 4, 1825. • Monroe was the last president who was a Founding Father of the United States, and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation. • His presidency was marked both by an "Era of Good Feelings" – a period of relatively little partisan strife – and later by the Panic of 1819 and a fierce national debate over the admission of the Missouri Territory. • Monroe is most noted for his proclamation of the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, which stated that the United States would not tolerate further European intervention in the Americas. The Missouri Compromise was an agreement passed in 1820 between the proslavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress organized by Henry Clay of Kentucky, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′. The Missouri Compromise provided for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as free state. • The Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention. President Monroe declared……. that North and South America “are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Powers”. • In 1823 the United States did not have the military power to enforce the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine nevertheless became an important element in American foreign policy and has remained so for more than 170 years. It was another example of America flexing its muscles and expressing its nationalistic feelings!