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Chapter 8: A New Nation (1789-1800)
Chapter 9: The Jefferson Era (1800-1816)
Chapter 10: Growth & Expansion (1790-1823)
•The inauguration of George Washington took place
at Federal Hall in New York on the island
of Manhattan .
•Washington choose four men to be in his
“cabinet” . This cabinet would help to advise him on
decisions in specific areas.
•These men were:
Thomas Jefferson: Secretary of State
Alexander Hamilton: Secretary of the Treasury
Henry Knox: Secretary of War
Edmund Randolph: Attorney General
National Debt:
•The new nation faced serious financial problems. This problem of debt was
handled by Alexander Hamilton(The Secretary of the Treasury).
•He proposed that the new government pay off this debt owed to other
governments and individual American citizens.
•This decision did not sit well with some states. Many had already paid their debt.
In order to win support for this proposal Hamilton had to compromise with the
Southern States.
•This decision to compromise led to the building of our nations capital in
Washington, D.C. This was along the banks of the Potomac River in Maryland.
• Hamilton’s taxes led to a rebellion in Western
• The farmers were in an uproar over paying a
special tax on the whiskey they made from
surplus corn.
• This armed protest alarmed government leaders,
recalling what happened with the Shay’s
• President Washington learned from this past
experience that this rebellion must be crushed if
this new nation was to survive.
• Washington personally led an army of 13,000
soldiers to crush the challenge.
• The rebellion collapsed as soon as the army
crossed the Appalachian Mountains.
Date: 1789
The first Congress had to decide how to set up the
nation’s court system.
The Judiciary Act 1789 established a
federal court system with 13 district courts
and 3 circuit courts
• State laws with regard to legal decisions
would remain, however the federal courts
would have the power to reverse state
• The Supreme Court would be the final
authority on many issues.
• Washington nominated John Jay as the
chief justice of the Supreme Court.
With the Judiciary Act, Congress had taken the final steps
toward creating a strong and independent judiciary
• Americans had long feared a strong central government.
• Some citizens thought that the best protection of individual rights lay
in strong state governments.
• Others insisted that the Constitution needed to include specific
statements guaranteeing personal liberties.
• James Madison, of Virginia, presented a list of individual liberties to
• In December 1791, these 10 Amendments were added to the
Constitution and became known as the Bill of Rights.
April 1, 1796
• In the spring of 1796, Washington announced he would
not seek a third term in office.
• By choosing to serve only two terms, Washington set a
precedent that later presidents would follow.
• In Washington’s “Farewell Address” he expressed his
concerns about divisions in American politics and with
what he considered a grave danger to the new nation ---the growth of political parties.
Footnotes to History: Washington died on December 14,
1799. He became ill with what was probably pneumonia.
• By the mid-1790’s, two distinct political
parties had taken shape.
• Washington had denounced political
parties in his “Farewell Address”. He
warned that they would divide the
• The name Federalist was first used to • The efforts to turn public opinion against
describe supporters of the
the Federalists began in 1791 when
Philip Freneau began publishing the
• By the 1790’s the word was applied
National Gazette.
to a the group of people who
• Thomas Jefferson helped the newspaper
supported the polices of Alexander
get started.
• The Republicans wanted to leave as
• Generally, Federalists stood for a
much power as possible to the state
vigorous federal government.
• They feared that a strong federal
government would endanger people’s
March 4, 1797
• John Adams became the second president of
the United States on March 4, 1797.
• The new president was from the state of
Massachusetts. He was a Federalist. His vice
president was Thomas Jefferson. He worked
with the committee that wrote the
Declaration of Independence. He was an
original signer of both the Declaration of
Independence and Constitution. He served
one term in office from 1797-1801.
• He was 61 years of age when he was elected.
His occupation(job) was a teacher and
• President Adams was reserved and
somewhat rigid, he felt more comfortable
with ideas than with people.
The XYZ Affair
• Early in his administration, President Adams faced a crisis France. The
French regarded Jay’s Treaty, signed in 1794, as an American attempt to
help the British in their war with France.
• To punish the United States, the French seized American ships that
carried cargo to Britain. Adams wanted to avoid war with France.
• In the fall of 1797, he sent a delegation to Paris to try to resolve the
dispute. French foreign minister Charles de Talleyrand, however refused
to meet with the Americans. Instead, Talleyrand, sent three agents who
demanded a bribe and a loan for France from the Americans.
• “Not a sixpence,” the Americans replied and sent a report of the incident
to the United States. Adams was furious! Referring to the French agents
as X, Y, Z. The president urged Congress to prepare for war. The
incident became known as the XYZ Affair.
Alien & Sedition Acts
• The threat of war with France made Americans more suspicious of aliens. The
word aliens refer to immigrants living in the country who were not citizens.
• Many Europeans who came to the United States in the 1790s endorsed the
ideals of the French Revolution. Some Americans questioned whether these
aliens would remain loyal in the event of a war with France.
• Federalists in Congress responded with strict laws to protect the nations
security. In 1798 they passed a group of measures known as the Alien and
Sedition acts.
• Sedition refers to activities aimed at weakening established government.
Adams had not asked for these laws, but he went along with the Federalist
majority in Congress.
March 4, 1801
• Thomas Jefferson became the third President of the United
States on March 4, 1801.
• The president was from the state of Virginia. He was a
Republican. He was the vice president to John Adams. He
worked on the committee that wrote the Declaration of
Independence. Jefferson was in the first cabinet to George
Washington and held the office of Secretary State.
• Jefferson was 57 years old when elected.
occupation(job) was a planter/farmer and lawyer.
• Jefferson believed in a wise and frugal government and
supported strong state governments.
• Jefferson also believed in a policy called “laissez-faire”. This
meant that the government plays only a small part in the
economic concerns of a country.
• In Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court for
the first time exercised its right to review and
rule on acts of the other branches of
• Chief Justice John Marshall was the individual in
charge of the Supreme Court for this decision.
• This exercised right is known as judicial review.
This power has become a basic part of the
system of checks and balances of our
government .
• In 1800 the territory of the United States extended only as far west
as the Mississippi River. The area to the west of the river----was
known as the Louisiana Territory---belonged to Spain. It was an
enormous area of land, anchored to the south by the city of New
Orleans and extending west to the Rocky Mountains.
• The Spanish allowed American pioneers to travel up and down the
river. Many pioneers settled down and established farms along the
rivers fed into the upper Mississippi River. They needed the river
to ship their crops to markets.
• The Spanish also allowed farmers to sail on the lower Mississippi
and trade in New Orleans. For the western farmers, this right was
• Suddenly in 1802 the Spanish changed their policy and refused
to allow American goods to move into or past New Orleans.
• That same year President Jefferson learned that Spain and
France had made a secret agreement to transfer the Louisiana
Territory to France.
• This agreement posed a series threat to the United States.
France’s leader Napoleon Bonaparte, had plans for an
empire in Europe and in the Americas.
• President Jefferson authorized U.S. Ambassador to France
(Robert Livingston) to offer $10 million dollars for the port of
New Orleans and West Florida.
• France needed money to finance Napoleon’s plans for war with Britain.
The French believed they had something for sale and that the United
States might want to buy it!
• The French foreign minister Charles de Talleyrand informed the
Americans that the whole Louisiana Territory was for sale! James
Monroe and Livingston were completely surprised. This was a deal to
good to pass up! President Jefferson approved of the $15 Million Dollar
Purchase through the use of the federal government’s treaty-making
• President Jefferson wanted to know more about the mysterious lands west of the
Mississippi River. He also wanted to know if there was a water route to the Pacific
Ocean. To head the expedition, Jefferson choose 28 year old Meriwether Lewis
and co-leader William Clark, 32, a friend of Lewis’s from his military experience.
Their mission was to find out if this Northwest Passage to the ocean existed.
• The expedition left St. Louis in the spring of 1804. Lewis and Clark kept a journal
of their voyage, making notes on what they saw and did. They hired a French
trader that was married to a Shoshone woman named Sacagawea. She helped
them navigate this difficult area, which were her native lands.
• The expedition finally reached the Pacific Ocean at the mouth of the Columbia
River in November 1805, after 18 months and nearly 4,000 miles of travel. They
proved that there was no Northwest Passage to the Pacific.
• James Madison became the fourth President of the United States on March
4, 1809.
• James Madison did not take office as president under the most favorable
conditions. Britain and France were still at war. Both were accusing the
United States of backing the other. Great Britain started “impressing” our
ships. They would stop the ships, board them and claim that certain United
States crew members were really British deserters. In Congress a young
group of new members cried for war with Britain. They were known as the
“War Hawks”.
• When a British warship attacked the USS Chesapeake off the coast of
Virginia, killing three Americans and wounding 18 news of the attack spread.
Americans were outraged! Not since the Revolutionary War had anti-British
fury been so high.
• By the spring of 1812, Madison concluded that war with Britain was
inevitable. In a message to Congress on June 1st he cited, “the spectacle of
injuries and indignities which have been heaped on our country” and asked
for a declaration of war.
• What Madison and Congress did not know was that Great Britain had
decided to end their policy of search and seizure of American ships.
• By the time this news arrived, we were “officially”
•Great Britain realized the war in North America was too costly.
They had defeated Napoleon in Europe and saw no reason to
continue the war. They decided to negotiate terms of peace and
met in Ghent, Belgium. In December of 1814, they arrived at an
agreement: The Treaty of Ghent. News of the treaty did not arrive
in the US until January 1815.
• Before the news arrived in the US, General Andrew Jackson
fought the British in a final battle. The bloody American victory at
the Battle of New Orleans was fought after the war was over!
•With his victory there were candlelight parades, fireworks, and
public prayers. The War brought a new spirit of nationalism
throughout the country! And made Andrew Jackson a hero!
• James Monroe became the fifth President of the United States on March 4,
1817. He was the last president who was a Founding Father of the United
• His presidency was named the “Era of Good Feelings”. After the War of
1812, Americans pride in their country (nationalism) was at an all time high.
We were “on equal footing” with Europe!
• Monroe had proclaimed in the Monroe Doctrine that the United States
would not tolerate further European colonization in the Americas.
• However, a fierce national debate over the admission of the Missouri
Territory as a state will spark a change in our “good feelings”.
• The Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United
States introduced on December 2, 1823. It
stated that further efforts by European nations to
colonize land or interfere with states in North or
South America would be viewed as acts of
aggression requiring U.S. intervention. President
Monroe declared……. that North and South
America “are henceforth not to be considered as
subjects for future colonization by any European
• In 1823 the United States did not have the
military power to enforce the Monroe Doctrine.
The Monroe Doctrine nevertheless became an
important element in American foreign policy and
has remained so for more than 170 years. It was
another example of America flexing its muscles
and expressing its nationalistic feelings!
The Missouri Compromise
was an agreement passed
in 1820 between the proslavery and anti-slavery
factions in the United States
Congress organized by
Henry Clay of Kentucky,
involving primarily the
regulation of slavery in the
western territories. It
prohibited slavery in the
former Louisiana Territory
north of the parallel 36°30′.
The Missouri Compromise
provided for the admission
of Missouri as a slave state
and Maine as free state.
• Prior to the 1700’s people working in their homes or in
workshops made cloth and most other goods. Using had tools,
they produced furniture, farm equipment, household items,
and clothing.
• In the mid 1700’s, however, the way goods were made
began to change. These changes appeared first in Great
Britain. British inventors created machinery to perform some
of the work involved in cloth making, such as spinning. The
machines ran on waterpower, so British cloth makers built
mills along rivers and installed the machines in these mills.
• People left their homes and farms to work in the mills. This meant a new way
of working as well as a new way of producing goods. The changes this
system brought about were so great that this time in history is known as the
Industrial Revolution.
• The Industrial Revolution began to take root in the United States around the
1800’s, appearing first in New England. The New England statesMassachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, and New Hampshireoffered ideal conditions for the development of factories. New England’s
poor soil made it difficult to farm. As a result, people were willing to leave
their farms to find work elsewhere. New England had many rushing rivers
and streams, which provided the necessary waterpower to run the machines.