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Glossary and Terms
Amphitheatre – Place for fighting /gladiator, ship, man against animal/
Aqueduct - A manmade channel used for delivering water to Roman towns. Public fountains and
baths made water available to everyone. Wealthy Romans had running water in their homes.
Barbarian - People who lived outside the Roman Empire. Eg. Hun, Visigoth, Ostrogoths, Vandal,
Century - A division of the Roman army made up of 80- 100 soldiers and led by a centurion.
Circus - A large oval shaped stadium used for chariot races. Its other name is hippodrome.
Citizen - A Roman citizen had certain rights and privileges including the right to vote. Only freeborn
men were fully Roman citizens.
Cohort - A cohort was a division of the Roman army. It was made up of five or six centuries or 480
men. There were 10 cohorts in a Roman legion.
Consul - The highest position in the Roman government. There were two consuls elected each year
for a one year term.
Corvus- a type of bridge that allowed Roman soldiers to board on enemy’s shi making fighting like on
the land.
Dictator - A ruler that has absolute power.
Emperor - The leader of an empire. The first emperor of Rome was Augustus.
Forum - The area of a Roman town that was the centre of Roman life. Government meetings, public
speeches, and business all took place in the forum.
Fresco - A painting made on a freshly plastered wall.
Gaul - The lands to the north and west of Italy /Today France/.
Gladiator - A person who fought for the entertainment of Roman audiences. Gladiators sometimes
fought to the death.
Gladius - A short sword used by Roman soldiers.
Hippodrome- See at circus!
Legion - The main unit of the Roman army. It generally had around 5000 soldiers and was divided up
into groups of men called cohorts and centuries.
Limes – Long wall along the border with towers and forts behind.
Pannonia: Province behind the River Danube, Transdanubium.
Paterfamilias - The man who was leader of the Roman family. He had complete power over his wife
and children.
Patrician - A member of the original elite land-owning noble families of Rome.
Plebeian - A common person or person not of the patrician class. Craftsmen, farmers, merchants.
Proletarian- Plebeian, who lost land, went to city, lives on charity, claim “Panem et circens!”
Province - An area of the Roman mpire that was outside Italy, lead by governor. The first one was
Republic - A country where the government is run by elected officials rather than by a king or
Rhetoric - The art of public speaking used to inform, motivate, or persuade an audience.
Senate - A group of men who advised the consuls. In most cases the consuls did what the Senate
Tribune - An elected representative of the Plebeian Council. Tribunes could veto laws made by the
Toga - A long robe worn by Roman citizens. It was generally white with colour for high ranking officials
Tunic- common clothe for all the Romans, it is a kind of long shirt.