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Flashcard Terms
“A story or tale with two or more
levels of meaning—a literal level
and one or more symbolic
Example: Animal Farm
“The occurrence of the same
letter or sound at the beginning
of adjacent or closely connected
Example: “Blueblack cold”
A reference to a person, place, or
another literary work, or event in
a literary piece.
Example: The Macbeth reference
in “Out, out—”
Character who stands in
opposition to the protagonist
Example: The Moth in
“Lesson of the Cockroach”
Rhetorical device in which two opposite ideas are put together in a
sentence to achieve a contrasting effect
Ex: “Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.”
Archetypes include a character, setting, theme, or
symbol that has a common or recognizable
meaning in an entire culture.
Examples: Symbolic colors (white=purity), Themes
(forbidden love), Familiar Characters (Star-Crossed
Lovers, Fairy Godmother), Recurring Plots (Damsel
in Distress, Long Journey/Difficult Quest)
Short speech delivered by a character in a play in order to express
his or her thoughts and feelings. It is traditionally directed to the
audience and is presumed not to be heard by other characters.
Example: “…and so near will I be,
That your best friends shall wish I had been further.” –Trebonius in
Julius Caesar
This technique tries to persuade
everyone to join in and do the
same thing, to “jump on the
Ex: Don’t be the only one in your
neighborhood who hasn’t tried
Mayfield ice cream. Join the
crowd today, and buy everyone’s
favorite, Mayfield.
Character Foil
A character that shows qualities that are in
contrast with the qualities of another
character with the objective to highlight
the traits of the other character.
Ex: Antigone and Ismene are foils for each other.
Antigone is independent and strong-willed, but Ismene
is cautious and submissive.
Direct Characterization
What the author directly tells the audience about
a character
Ex: Chig
Chig is seventeen (Kelley 1).
Indirect Characterization
Speech-Character says/how he or she speaks
Thoughts-Character’s private thoughts and feelings
Effect on others toward character/How others behave
in reaction to character
Actions-Character’s behavior/What character does
Looks-Character’s appearance, dress
Indirect Characterization
Ex: Eva Dunford (grandmother)
“Only time I need help getting anywhere is when I
dies, and they lift me into the ground” (Kelley 3).
She is very independent and does not want any
special treatment because of her age.
• Use a colon after an independent clause when
introducing a list.
• Example: She likes the following items at Panera:
hazelnut coffee, cinnamon crunch bagels, and
strawberry poppy seed salads.
• Use a colon after an independent clause when
introducing a quotation.
• Example: In his movie Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, John
Hughes wrote: “Life moves pretty fast. If you don’t
stop and look around once in a while, you could miss
• Use a colon between two independent clauses when
the second clause explains or summarizes the first
• Example: Mrs. Owen enjoys traveling: Los Angeles,
Paris, and Florence are currently on her bucket list.
Before the coordinating conjunction to separate two independent
clauses in a compound sentence.
Example: My friends and I will go to the movies Friday, and we will
go to the UT vs. Alabama football game Saturday.
Separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series.
Example: She enjoys shopping, watching Modern Family, and
spending time with friends.
Separate adjectives of equal rank.
Example: Our English II class meets in a decorative, colorful room.
After an introductory word, phrase, or clause.
Example: When we were sophomores in high school, we had Mrs.
Owen in English II.
Set off parenthetical and nonessential expressions (appositive
Example: English II, my favorite class, is reading Frankenstein.
Places, dates, and titles
Examples: Bearden High School is in Knoxville, Tennessee.
Friday, March 14, 2014, commences our spring break.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech.
Set off a direct quotation, to prevent a sentence from being
misunderstood, directly addressing someone
Examples: Isaiah said, “I’m going to play soccer this afternoon.”
Faulty: Let’s eat Granddad.
Revised: Let’s eat, Granddad.
Comma Splice
A comma splice occurs when a writer has connected two main
clauses with a comma alone.
Ex: Caleb waited for his pizza to cool, he had already burned the
roof of his mouth with the mozzarella sticks.
Comma Splice-Correct with Period + Capital
Make two separate sentences
Ex: Caleb waited for his pizza to cool. He had already burned the
roof of his mouth with the mozzarella sticks.
Comma Splice-Correct with Comma +
Coordinating Conjunction
Ex: Caleb waited for his pizza to cool, for he had
already burned the roof of his mouth with the
mozzarella sticks.
Comma Splice-Correct with Semicolon
Ex: Caleb waited for his pizza to cool; he had
already burned the roof of his mouth with the
mozzarella sticks.
Comma Splice-Correct with Subordination
Use a subordinate conjunction; this method
reduces one of the two clauses to an incomplete
Ex: Caleb waited for his pizza to cool since he had
already burned the roof of his mouth with the
mozzarella sticks.
Compare and Contrast
The viewer is led to believe one
product is better than another,
although no real proof is offered.
Ex: Verizon Wireless says it has
5X more 3G coverage than AT&T.
Internal Conflict
“Character struggles with his
or her own opposing feelings,
beliefs, needs, or desires”
Example: Hamlet (“To be or
not to be”)
External Conflict
“Character clashes with an
outside force—another
character, society, or nature”
Example: Montagues vs.
Capulets in Romeo and Juliet
Emotional Words
Words such as luxury, beautiful, paradise, and
economical are used to evoke positive feelings in
the viewer.
Ex: Are you tired, run-down, listless? Do you poop
out at parties? Are you unpopular? The answer to
all your problems is in this little bottle.
Vitameatavegamin. It’s so tasty, too! Tastes just
like candy!
Rhetorical Appeals: Ethical Appeal (Ethos)
• An appeal based on the
character of the speaker
• Audience is persuaded
via rhetor’s reputation
• Personality, credentials,
and history create ethos
When used correctly, the writer is seen as…
• Well-informed about
the topic
• Confident in his or her
• Sincere and honest
• Understanding of the
reader’s concerns and
possible objections
When used incorrectly, the writer is seen as…
 Unfair or dishonest
 Distorting or
information (biased)
 Insulting or dismissive
of other viewpoints
 Advocating intolerant
Extended Metaphor
A comparison between two
unlike things through lines in a
Example: “Life for me ain’t been
no crystal stair.”
A fable is intended to provide a
moral story and usually
personifies the animal characters
with the ability to speak and to
Example: Animal Farm
Faulty Cause and Effect
Use of a product is credited for
creating a positive result.
Ex: By eating Campbell’s chicken
noodle soup, you will not get a
“The use of indicative
words/phrases and hints that
set the stage for a story to
unfold forthcoming events”
Example: Little Red Riding Hood
(“Watch out for the wolf in the
Sentence Fragments
• Result if you punctuate certain word groups as if they are complete
sentences. The most common of these word groups are the following:
Subordinate clause: Subordinate conjunction + verb
Participle phrase: begins with –ing or –ed
Infinite phrase- to + verb
Verb phrase-without a subject
Appositive-word that renames a noun beside it
Sentence Fragments
• To fix fragments, you can attach the fragment either to the front or
the end of a nearby main clause.
• Afterthought: especially, for example, for instance, like, such as,
including, except
Sentence Fragments
• Ex: Flooring the accelerator, Adrian wove through the heavy traffic. As
his ex-best friend Roberto chased him down the interstate.
• To correct: The period after “traffic” can be removed.
• Imagery is descriptive language the author uses to paint a picture in
the reader’s mind.
• Ex: “I contemplated the lake: the waters were placid; all around was
calm; and the snowy mountains, ‘the palaces of nature,’ were not
Dramatic Irony
“A contradiction between what a
character thinks and what the
reader or audience knows to be
Example: Horror movies-The
audience yelling at the character,
“Don’t go in there!”
Situational Irony
“An event occurs that directly
contradicts the expectations of
the characters, the reader, or the
Example: Friday Night Lights
movie-After overcoming a
difficult football season, the
team loses the championship
Verbal Irony
“Words are used to suggest the
opposite of what is meant.”
Example: Mean Girls- Regina
George telling a girl she loves her
vintage skirt and later says that
the girl’s skirt is ugly.
Lyric Poem
A highly musical verse that expresses the
observations and feelings of a single speaker.
Ex: “Those Winter Sundays”
Rhetorical Appeals: Logical Appeals (Logos)
• An appeal to logic
• Audience is persuaded
via reason
• Relies on inductive and
deductive reasoning
When used correctly, logical appeal contains:
• Strong, clear claims
• Reasonable qualifiers
for claims
• Strong evidence (facts,
statistics, personal
experience, expert
authority, interviews,
• Acknowledgement of
When used poorly, logical appeal contains:
• Over-generalized claims
• Reasons that are not
fully explained or
• Logical fallacies
• Evidence misused or
• No recognition of
opposing views
The comparison of two things
without using “like” or “as”.
Example: “All the world’s a stage
and the men and women merely
players.” –William Shakespeare
“Seven Ages of Man”
Figure of speech that replaces the name of a thing with the name
of something else with which it is closely associated.
Example: “So we wad all our life up into one little roll and then we
shoot the roll” (“Lesson of the Moth”)
Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
• For clear, logical sentences, writers aim modifiers so that they strike
as close to the intended targets as possible.
• Ex-Sneering with superiority, Quinn drank iced tea from a crystal
glass that sparkled in the afternoon sun.
• Sneering with superiority, a participle phrase, describes Quinn, the
noun right after it. That sparkled in the afternoon sun, a relative
clause, describes glass, the noun in front.
Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
• When a writer’s aim is off and too much distance
separates the modifier from its target, the result is a
misplaced modifier.
• Drinking warm water from a rubber hose, envious
looks were shot Quinn’s way as the other picnickers
quenched their own thirst.
• Drinking warm water from a rubber hose, a
participle phrase, should describe picnickers, but
since that noun is so far away, the phrase seems to be
modifying envious looks, which don’t have mouths
that can suck water!
Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
• If the sentence fails to include a target, the modifier is dangling.
• With a sigh of pleasure, consumption of cucumber sandwiches
• We assume that Quinn is the one sighing with pleasure and eating
cucumber sandwiches, but notice that he’s not in the sentence, so we
can’t tell for sure!
A long speech by one character that, unlike a soliloquy, is
addressed to another character or characters.
Example: “Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears…” –
Marc Antony, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 2
The mood is usually described in
expressions of feeling and
Ex: Fear, Surprise, Anger, Hatred
Name Calling
Negative words are used to
create an unfavorable opinion of
the competition in the viewer’s
Ex: Big Mac? Seems more like a
medium (Burger King going
against McDonald’s.).
• The use of words that imitate sounds.
Example: Snap, Crackle, Pop, Buzz
Parallel Structure
• Whenever a writer includes a list of actions or items, he/she must use
equal grammatical units
• If the first item is a noun, then the following items must also be
nouns; if the first action is a past tense verb, then make the other
items past tense verbs as well.
Parallel Structure
• Examples of parallel structure
• Use past tense verbs-Students capped their pens, closed their
notebooks, and zipped their book bags…
• Or make all items in the list nouns: Students gathered their pens,
notebooks, and book bags…
Parallel Structure
• Be aware of correlative conjunctions such as Not only…but also,
either…or, and neither…nor because these require special attention
when proofreading for parallelism.
• Not only did Professor Jones give the class a withering look, but he
also assigned 20 extra pages of homework as punishment for their
impatience to leave.
Repetition of a grammatical structure in order to
create a rhythm and make words more memorable.
“As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was
fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor
Rhetorical Appeals: Emotional Appeal (Pathos)
• An appeal to emotion
• Audience becomes
emotionally aroused
• Can persuade through
the use of multiple
When done well, emotional appeals…
• Reinforce logical arguments
• Use diction and imagery to
create a bond with the reader in
a humane way
• Appeal to idealism, beauty,
humor, nostalgia, or pity (or
other emotions) in a balanced
• Are presented in a fair manner
When used poorly, emotional appeals…
• Become a substitute for logic
and reason (TV and magazine
advertising often relies heavily
on emotional rather than logical
• Use stereotypes to pit one group
of people against another
(propaganda and some political
advertising does this)
When used poorly, emotional appeals…
• Offer a simple, unthinking
reaction to a complex problem
• Take advantage of emotions to
manipulate (through fear, hate,
pity, prejudice, embarrassment,
lust, or other feelings) rather
than convince credibly
Giving human characteristics to
something nonhuman/inanimate
Example: The saw proving it knew
what supper meant. From “Out,
Plot Diagram
Exposition: “Introduces the
characters, background, and
Rising Action: “Statement(s) that
summarize the story”
Climax: “The ‘turning point’; the
protagonist changes”
Plot Diagram
Falling Action: “Statement
about what leads to the end of
the conflict”
Resolution: “The end of the
Pronoun-Verb Agreement
An indefinite pronoun refers to an unspecified person or
Singular: another, anybody, anyone, anything, each, either,
everyone, neither, nobody, no one, one, someone
Plural: both, few, many, several
Singular or Plural: all, any, more, most, none, some (take
singular verbs when they refer to one person or thing; take
plural verbs when they refer to two or more people or
Most of the story takes place in England.
Most of the stories take place in England.
The central character or leading
figure in a literary piece.
Example: Archy the Cockroach
in “Lesson of the Moth”
• A play on words in which a
humorous effect is produced by
using a word that suggests two
or more meanings
• Ex: In Julius Caesar, the word
“cobbler” is used to refer to
“mender of the soles” and
“mender of the souls”.
Quotation Marks
Quotation marks come in pairs; do not begin a
quote and forget to close it.
Quotation Marks
Capitalize the first letter of a direct quote when the
quoted material is a complete sentence.
Example: Mrs. Owen, our English II teacher, said, “I
cannot wait until Thanksgiving.”
Quotation Marks
Do not use a capital letter when the quoted
material is a fragment or only a piece of the
original material’s complete sentence.
Example: Although Lauren had to work long hours
at Chick-fil-a, he stated that it was “worth talking to
an elderly gentleman and receiving a free cookie.”
Quotation Marks
If a direct quotation is interrupted mid-sentence,
do not capitalize the second part of the quotation.
Example: “I love watching Disney princess movies,”
Julia said, “and I wish I could live out their
Quotation Marks
Use a comma to introduce a quotation after a
standard dialogue tag, a brief introductory phrase,
or a dependent clause.
Example: The detective said, “I am sure who
performed the murder.”
Quotation Marks
Put commas and periods within quotation marks,
except when a parenthetical reference follows.
Example: Schuler said, “I would love to go, but I
have practice.”
Owen says, “When in doubt, cite it out” (25).
Quotation Marks
Place colons and semicolons outside closed
quotation marks.
Example: William described the game as “tough
but successful”; other players agreed.
Haven emphasizes “three keys to writing a paper”:
research, hard work, and determination.
Quotation Marks
Place a question mark or exclamation point within
closing quotation marks if the punctuation applies
to the quotation itself. Place the punctuation
outside the closing quotation marks if the
punctuation applies to the whole sentence.
Example: Jessica asked, “Do you need this book?”
Does Nike always say, “Just do it”?
Quotation Marks
Song titles, poems, short stories, and speeches use
quotation marks.
Example: “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy
Evening” is poem that uses repetition.
The product name or a key word
or phrase is repeated several
times; by the end of the
commercial, the product’s name
will be remembered.
Ex: Nick Nick Nick Nick Nick Nick
Nick Nickelodeon
Repetition of a grammatical structure in order to
create a rhythm and make words more memorable.
“As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was
fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor
Rhetorical Question
A question to which no answer is expected, often used for
rhetorical effect.
Example: “Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?”
A writing technique writers use to expose and criticize corruption
of an individual or a society by using humor. Its intention is to
promote social change.
Example: Dorothy Parker’s “One Perfect Rose”
• Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses that
are closely related to each other in content.
• Example: Friends was my favorite television show
during the 1990s; in fact, it is my favorite television
show of all time.
• Use a semicolon between items in a list that already
involve commas.
• Example: I have lived in Knoxville, Tennessee;
Washington, DC; and Atlanta, Georgia.
• Descriptions of the place and time
• Example: The woods in “The Road Not Taken”
The comparison of two things
using “like” or “as”.
Example: His hands were like wild
A long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on
Example: “Well, Brutus, thou art noble…” –Cassius, Julius Caesar,
Act I, Scene 2
Subject-Verb Agreement
A verb must agree with its subject in number
Example: Mrs. Owen’s students are the best in the
Some nouns ending in s are really singular in
Example: News about the Boston Marathon
bombing is heartbreaking.
Subject-Verb Agreement
In a verb phrase, it is the first helping verb that
must agree with the subject.
Example: In the play Julius Caesar, conspirators
have had enough problems from their ruler.
Subject-Verb Agreement
The subject of a verb is never found in a
prepositional phrase or an appositive phrase.
Examples: The students of Chamblee Charter High
School are ready for winter break.
The Hunger Games, the best book, is also a great
Subject-Verb Agreement
A compound subject whose parts are joined by and
usually requires a plural verb
Example: Friends and Gilmore Girls are her favorite
television shows.
Subject-Verb Agreement
Collective Nouns- Refer to groups of people or
class, committee, flock, crowd, team, family, staff,
police, club, herd, jury, majority
When referred to as a unit, it takes a singular verb.
When it refers to a group acting as individuals, it
takes a plural verb.
Examples: A robbery team steals a Monet in The
Thomas Crown Affair.
The team separate after the theft.
Subject-Verb Agreement
When the parts of a compound subject are joined
by or or nor, the verb should agree with the part
closest to it.
Example: Neither the Plastics nor Cady receives a
candy cane from Glenn Cocoa.
“Anything that stands for
something else (usually an
abstract idea).”
Example: The Ebony Clock
symbolizes fleeting time in
“Masque of the Red Death”.
An important person or a famous
figure endorses a product.
Ex: I’m Oprah Winfrey, and I’ve
lost weight thanks to Weight
“A central message or insight into
life revealed through a literary
Example: “Be careful what you
wish for” is a key theme in “The
Monkey’s Paw”.
“The writer’s attitude toward his
or her audience and subject.”
Example: Dorothy Parker’s tone
in “One Perfect Rose” is sarcastic.
Tragic Hero
According to Aristotle, a true TRAGIC HERO
should experience, encounter, or display:
Displays hubris (excessive pride)
Displays hamartia (mistake in judgment, caused by an
internal flaw)
Displays anagnoresis. (recognizes he/she is wrong)
Downfall from high status through some combination
of hubris, fate (destiny), and the will of the gods.
Receives punishment for their actions.
Ex: Oedipus
Good feelings, looks, or ideas
transferred to the person for
whom the product is intended.
Ex: Smell like a man, man. (Old
Spice commercial)