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Peloponnesian War
Greece’s Golden Age was short lived
In 431 BC, Greece was divided into two camps, Athens and Sparta
Corinth appealed to Sparta, Thebes, and others to attack Athens
Athenians developed a war strategy of coastal raids and naval blockades
o Pericles inspired the strategy
Sparta attacked over land
o People fled from the country to inside the walls of Athens
o Poor living conditions, low food supplies, and the plague developed
o Plague killed ¼ of the population, Pericles included
The war was now dead even
Sparta borrowed money from the Persians to build a fleet
Athens was caught off guard by a surprise attack by the Spartan navy
Athenians were overwhelmed and beat
o Athens surrendered all foreign possessions and ships
Sparta could not unify Athens either, destroyed by Athens and Thebes
Macedonian Era
Macedonia, a territory north of Greece, was on the rise under its ruler, Philip II.
Philip saw what was happening in Greece and waited until an opportune time to
strike. A cunning soldier, Philip II held the most efficient military the world had
ever seen. Philip integrated the Greek phalanx with heavy cavalry. Philip II slowly
started to secure areas of Greece using his military and diplomacy. In 338 BC,
Philip won the battle of Chaeronea, defeating Athens and Thebes. This solidified
Philip’s domination of the Aegean area.
After Philip’s victories in Greece, the Hellenistic
Age set in. Hellenism is a Greek work for
‘imitation of the Greeks’. A Hellenistic league of
states was created consisting of all Greek states,
except Sparta, and became allied with
Macedonia. With Greece under his control,
Philip turned to Persia as his next target.
Unfortunately for Philip, he was assassinated by
one of his personal bodyguards at his daughter’s
wedding. The reason for the assassination is still
a mystery and debated today. Although Philip
died without reaching his dream of conquering
Asia Minor, his son, Alexander, would carry out
this dream himself.
Peloponnesian war: