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Greek City-States
Greek calendar was in Olympiads, 4 year intervals beginning in 776 BCE, year of lst Olympic Games
Wars of Hellenic Greece
Persian Wars Early 5th c. BCE 490-445 BCE
Battles of Marathon 490; Thermopylae, Salamis 480
Historian: Herodotus
Delian League—Athens moves treasury from Delos to Athens in 454
Peloponnesian War 432 – 404 Historian: Thucydides
Between Peloponnesian League led by Sparta and
Delian League led by Athens
431 Pericles’ funeral oration
404 Athens surrenders to Sparta, brief period of thirty tyrants
before democracy restored.
399 Socrates sentenced by Athenian jury
Wars of Hellenistic Era
Philip of Macedon conquers Athens 338
336-323 Alexander the Great spread conquest to Asian Minor
Romans conquered Hellenistic States, 2nd and 1st centuries BCE
Types of Government
in self-governing city-states
Aristotle, Politics:
Government by 1
Government by Few
Government by Many
For good of state
For Good of Ruler
Types of Government…
Athens: Law makers Solon (increase power of poor) and
Cleisthenes (30 regions of polis for voting, ostracism for
expelling potential tyrant)
Golden Age of Pericles: Considered by Greeks to be a Democracy
Popular Assembly, Ecclesia of about 5000 votes directly on
hillside Council of 500; Board of 10 Generals elected
annually (leading General Pericles)
Citizen women “secluded” in women’s quarter, yet playwrights
imagine strong women characters.
Tradesmen and tradeswomen.
Types of Government…
Sparta: Legislator Lycurgus in account of Xenophon
Considered by Greeks to be oligarchy
2 kings, council of elders, all men 7 to 50 in military barracks
Citizen women control property and are known for health
Helots—subjugated agricultural workers.
Greek Speculation
on Justice
Pericles-“Funeral Oration” as recorded by Thucydides
Sophocles, Antigone- Arbitrary ruler’s law versus
divine law
Aristotle-Politics and Nicomachean Ethics
Plato’s Crito on Socrates refusing to sneak out of Athens after trial