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Verbals are words that look like
verbs, but act like something else
(nouns, adjectives, or adverbs)
Three Types of Verbals
Verbal #1: Gerunds
Gerunds are words that look like verbs but
act like NOUNS and end in ING.
How do they function?
Subject: Reading is fun!
Predicate Noun (Nominative): My favorite
hobby is reading. 
Direct Object: I love reading!
Indirect Object: I gave reading a try.
Object of the Preposition: I am talking about
An –ing word must be preceded by a
helping verb in order to be a verb
The freshmen taking the test.
The freshmen have been taking the test.
A noun that follows a gerund and answers
the question who or what is the OBJECT
He made a complaint by writing a letter to
the president.
Writing a what?
A letter!! (OG)
Try it out!
1. Hiking is an excellent way to stay in good
2. I love stomping in puddles.
3. My goal is graduating from high school
and attending college.
4. I gave swimming my best effort.
5. I was thinking about traveling over the
Write your own 
Predicate Noun (Nominative):
Direct Object:
Indirect Object:
Object of the Preposition:
Using Gerunds in Your Writing
Use gerunds to emphasize what has
occurred rather than who is acting
I like softball. It is a lot of fun. I have fun
with my friends on the team.
Playing softball is fun. My teammates
have become some of my good friends.
Gerund phrases
Gerunds can be attached to prepositional
phrases or other words to form phrases.
Reading a book is food for the brain.
Climbing a tree can be fun but dangerous.
Running through the mall might get you
kicked out.
Singing in the shower is sometimes a very
bad habit.
participial phrases
Participles are verbals
Participles look like verbs, but act
Present and Past Participles
 End in ING
 Usually end in ED
 Sometimes end in T
or EN
 Present participle
 Past participle
 Limping, the hiker
favored his aching
 Confused, Nan
returned to her
interrupted work.
 Limping describes
 Aching describes
 Confused describes
 Interrupted describes
Try it out!
Think of three words that look like verbs,
but act like adjectives.
Whip around
More examples
Jessica’s shining eyes betrayed her
The shattered window needs replacement.
The beating heart fascinated Billy.
The lost boys screamed in the night.
The policeman found the stolen car.
The present participles being and having
may be followed by a past participle.
Being informed, I knew what to expect.
Having decided, Adele acted quickly.
Verb or participle?
 The dog is snarling at
the plumber.
 The snarling dog
attacked the plumber.
 The singers delighted
their audience.
 Delighted, the
audience applauded.
Verb, participle or gerund?
Do we have any wrapping paper left?
The detective was wrapping up the case.
Wrapping the gifts took longer than
Let’s try that again
Emily must have been dreaming about her
The dreaming girl stared absently out the
I often remember dreaming.
Try it out!
Think of a verb which can be used as a
verb, a participle, and a gerund.
Write three sentences:
Participial phrases
Jumping high, Brad hit his head on the
The chemist, blinded by smoky fumes,
Scanning the book, Angelica spotted the
another verbal!
To + a Verb
Preposition or Infinitive?
1. At the outdoor market, my grandmother
likes to bargain.
2. Would you try to explain?
3. Give an explanation to Glen.
4. To believe took considerable faith.
5. Lindsey wrote letters to friends.
Infinitive or preposition?
After working so hard, he wanted to rest.
Our trip to China was filled with surprises.
Baxter’s gift to me was too extravagant.
When do you plan to graduate?
On Vicky’s way to town, she had a flat
Infinitives can function as nouns,
adjectives, or adverbs
They are the only thing in the English
language that can
N.B. An infinitive can NEVER be the verb
of the sentence
Infinitives as nouns
An infinitive as a noun can function as
The P.N.
The D.O.
The O.P.
To read is fun!
My ambition is to win!
I love to read!
The parachuter was about to
You have only one choice,
to go.
Try it out!
Write one sentence for each function:
Infinitive as subject
Infinitive as direct object
Infinitive as predicate nominative
Infinitive as object of the prep
Infinitive as an appositive
Infinitives as modifiers
Infinitive as adjective:
 Adjectives answer which one or what kind
The children showed a willingness to cooperate.
What kind of willingness?
To cooperate modifies willingness
The time to start is now.
Which time?
To start modifies time
A little practice
1. That is the way to live.
2. Derek has the ability to succeed in
3. The man to hire is that applicant in the
dark glasses.
4. My desire to travel has taken me all over
the world.
5. These are the songs to sing at the
Try it out!
Write three of your own sentences using
infinitives as adjectives.
Circle the infinitive and draw an arrow to
the word it modifies.
Label the sentence pattern.
Infinitive as adverb:
Adverbs answer WHY, WHEN, WHERE,
They fought to win.
Why did they fight?
To win modifies fought.
Some people are unable to adjust.
How are they unable?
To adjust modifies unable.
A little practice
The contract was written to provide the
rights and laws you must know.
The LA Zoo is fun to visit in the morning.
The winner was excited to accept the new
Chris is coming to discuss the location for
the picnic.
Editors are trained to find grammatical
Try it out!
Write three of your own sentences using
an infinitive as an adverb.
Circle the infinitive and draw an arrow to
the word it modifies.
Label the sentence pattern.
Infinitive Phrases
Infinitives can be expanded into phrases
by adding
Adverbs: Jeff’s entire family likes to rise early.
Adverb phrases: To skate on the ice without
falling was not too easy for him.
Direct objects: He hated to discuss emotions.
Indirect objects and direct objects: They
promised to show us their slides.
Subject and Complement: I would like her to
determine her own goals.
Identifying Infinitive Phrases
1. To describe the hockey game in an
understandable manner required
2. The birdwatcher’s ambition was to see
one hundred different species.
3. My friends and I went to see the exhibit
on Indian art and to gather material for
our report.
4. Huck and Tom swore to keep the secret
about Injun Joe.
Put it all together
Choose an infinitive and use it as a noun,
adjective, and adverb.
Example: to sing
I love to sing to my students.
My ability to sing has been questioned by some
of my closest friends.
It is fun to sing grammar songs.