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VERBAL PHRASES A verbal phrase is a word that is formed from a verb but acts as another part of speech. Three Types of Verbal Phrases • The Gerund • The Participle • The Infinitive Gerunds • A GERUND is a verb form ending in -ing that is used as a NOUN. • It is part verb and part noun. • We form GERUNDS by adding -ing to the verb and using it as a subject or an object. Examples • Singing is fun. – The gerund, singing, is used as a: subject • Shelly likes swimming. – The gerund, swimming, is used as a: object • The time for wrestling has been changed. – The gerund, wrestling, is: the object of the preposition for. THE PARTICIPLE The Participle • The participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. • The participle is part verb and part adjective. • There are two kinds of participles: present participles and past participles Present Participle • The present participle consists of the plain form of the verb plus – ing that can be used as an adjective. Examples: The pouring rain drove us inside. • Pouring is the present participle that modifies the noun - rain PAST PARTICIPLE • The past participle is formed by adding –d or –ed to the verb. • For example: walk – walked, smile – smiled, and ring – rung. Examples: The tired artist did not complete the painting. - tired is the past participle modifying artist MORE EXAMPLES • Darting suddenly, the cat escaped through the door. – Darting modifies the cat • • Challenge: What part of speech is suddenly? Waxed floors can be dangerously slippery - Waxed modifies the noun floors. INFINITIVES • An infinitive is a verb form, usually preceded by to, that can be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. • Note: to plus a noun or a pronoun is a prepositional phrase, not an infinitive. Examples Sandy needs to study. • To study is the object of the verb needs • Here the infinitive to study is used as a noun. Cheryl wanted to work on the play. • To work is the object of the verb wanted • Here the infinitive to work is used as a noun. Examples The place to visit is Williamsburg. • The infinitive to visit modifies place • Here the infinitive to visit acts as an adjective. Examples • • • • Sara Miller jumped to shoot. The infinitive to shoot modifies jumped. Jumped is a verb Therefore, the infinitive to shoot is acting as an adverb in this sentence.