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Transcript
VERBALS
• A verbal is the form of a verb used as a noun ,adjective or adverbs.
• A verbal is a word formed from a verb but functioning as a different
part of speech
• A verbal is a noun or adjective formed from adverb.
• There are three main forms of verbals which are gerunds(which act
like nouns) ,particles( which act like adjectives) and infinitives(
which act can act like a noun, adjective or adverb)
• Ex: Participle: Catch a falling star. / He is a fallen hero.
• Ex: Gerund: Swimming the Channel must be difficult.
• Ex: Infinitive: She loves to swim.
GERUNDS
• A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing.
• The Gerund is a verbal noun—it is derived from the verb, but we
use it as a noun. We form a gerund by adding -ing to the simple
form of the verb, or the root infinitive.
• A gerund can be the subject, object of a verb ,subject
complements, direct objects, and indirect objects because gerunds
function as nouns. It can also act as the object of a preposition.
• Smoking can cause cancer. (Here the gerund smoking acts as
the subject of the verb.)
• I am thinking of taking a break. (Here the gerund taking is the
object of the preposition of.)
• She is confident of winning. (NOT She is confident of to win.)
(NOT She is confident to win.)
GERUNDS
• Gerunds are formed with -ing. (thinking, singing, walking, talking,
listening)
• As a noun it may function as:
• (1) the subject or complement of a verb: "Seeing is believing."
• (2) the object of a verb: "I admire his singing."
• (3) the object of a preposition: "She is good at running."
• As a verb it may be:
• (1) modified by an adverb, or by an adverbial phrase: "He began
laughing harmoniously."
• (2) when transitive, it may control a noun or pronoun in the objective
case: "Playing golf is great sport.”
• Gerunds are often phrasal:
• EX.— "I hate being seen at her house."
• EX.— "He knew of my having been fired."
PARTICIPLES
• past and present. They are two of the five forms or principal
parts that every verb has
• past participles do not have a consistent ending. The past
participles of all regular verbs end in ed; the past participles of
irregular verbs, however, vary considerably.
• If you look at bring and sing, for example, you'll see that their past
participles—brought and sung—do not follow the same pattern
even though both verbs haveing as the last three letters.
• Participles have three functions in sentences. They can be
components of multipart verbs, or they can function
as adjectives or nouns.
• Past and present participles often function as adjectives that
describe nouns.
• The crying baby drew a long breath and sucked in a spider
crouching in the corner of the crib. (Which baby? The crying baby.
Which spider? The one that wascrouching in the corner.)
PARTICIPLES
• Present participles can function as nouns—the subjects, direct
objects, indirect objects, objects of prepositions, andsubject
complements in sentences. Whenever a present participle functions
as a noun, you call it a gerund.
• Sneezing exhausts Steve, who requires eight tissues and twentyseven Gesundheits before he is done.(Sneezing = the subject of the
verb exhausts.
• It is really common to see participles in participle phrases. A
participle phrase also acts like an adjective.
• Ex: the man carrying the bricks is my father.(The participle
phrase carrying the hod describes the the man.)
EX: She showed us a plate of scones crammed with cream.(The
participle phrase creamed with cream describes the scones.)
EX:Whistling the same tune as always, Ted touched the front of
his cap with his forefinger as she dismounted.(The participle
phrase Whistling the same tune as always describes Ted.)
PARTICIPLES
The following is a
regular verb chart
Base form
Past
simple
Past
participle
finish
finished
finished
stop
stopped
stopped
work
worked
worked
Participles are forms of the verb that function as
adjectives. They can end in "ed," "en," or "ing."
INFINITIVES
• The infinitive form of a verbs is when a verb is preceded by the word
to it is said to be in it’s infinitive form or most basic form
• An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb (in its
simplest "stem" form) and functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
The term verbal indicates that an infinitive, like the other two kinds of
verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state
of being.
• the infinitive may function as a subject, direct object, subject
complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence.
• An infinitive is easy to locate because of the to + verb form, deciding
what function it has in a sentence can sometimes be confusing.
• Infinitives are formed with to. (to think, to sing, to walk, to talk, to listen)
• I have to smoke that!(to smoke - infinitive form of the verb)
• The infinitive form is the verb that Is modified to conjugate it.
• Therefore the infinitive form cannot have a -s, -es, -ed, or -ing ending.
• Infinitives can lose their to when it follows certain verbs like feel, hear,
help, let, make, etc.
• Infinitives can be used as nouns adjective or adverbs
INFINITIVES
• EX: To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was required.
(subject)
• Everyone wanted to go. (direct object)
• His ambition is to fly. (subject complement)
• He lacked the strength to resist. (adjective)
• We must study to learn. (adverb)
• Be sure not to confuse an infinitive—a verbal consisting of to plus
a verb—with a prepositional phrase beginning with to, which
consists of to plus a noun or pronoun and any modifiers.
• Infinitives: to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to stand, to catch,
to belong
• Prepositional Phrases: to him, to the committee, to my house,
to the mountains, to us, to this address
• An Infinitive Phrase is a group of words consisting of an
infinitive and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun
phrase(s) that function as the actor(s), direct object(s), indirect
object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in
the infinitive,
CITED SOURCES
• "Topics." Verbals. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013.
• "Verbals ." Verbals. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013.
• "Welcome to the Purdue OWL." Purdue OWL: Gerunds,
Participles, and Infinitives. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013.
• "VERBALS : WHAT ARE VERBALS, GERUNDS, INFINITIVES
AND PARTICIPLES."VERBALS : WHAT ARE VERBALS,
GERUNDS, INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES. N.p., n.d.
Web. 18 Nov. 2013.
• "Topics." Verbal Practice. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013.
• "Punctuation." Verbal (grammar Lesson). N.p., n.d. Web.
18 Nov. 2013.
• "The Participle." The Participle. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov.
2013