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Infectious Diseases and Disease
HCS 1100
SLO 1.1
Disease Terminology
 Disease may be defined as abnormality
of the structure or function of a part,
organ, or system.
 Disease may be of known or unknown
causes and may show marked variation
in severity and effects on an individual
Predisposing Causes of Disease
Predisposing causes may
increase the probability of a
person’s becoming ill
Tissues degenerate with age. Some diseases are more
common in younger adults and children
Men are more likely to have early heart disease, women
are more likely to develop adult diabetes and
autoimmune diseases
Some people inherit a ‘tendency’ to get particular
diseases such as diabetes, allergies and certain forms of
-not getting enough sleep, poor diet, little exercise, drug
and alcohol abuse.
-overcrowding and poor sanitation help the spread of
-stress and anxiety of everyday life can affect the body
Physical and
Injuries that cause burns, cuts, crushing damage to
tissues and fractures can increase the chances of
Exposure to radiation, chemical toxins, pollutants
- Having chronic disease such as high blood pressure or
diabetes increases a person’s chances of getting another
The study of the cause of any
disease or the theory of its
Diseases are often classified on the
basis of severity and duration
 Acute – these diseases are relatively severe
but usually last a short time
 Chronic – these diseases are often less severe
but are likely to be continuous or recurring for
long periods of time
 Subacute- these diseases are intermediate
between acute and chronic
The study of diseases in populations
 These scientists collect information
on a disease’s geographical
distribution and its tendency to
appear in one gender, age group or
race more or less frequently than
Epidemic and Pandemic
 Epidemic – when many people in a
given region acquire a certain
disease at the same time
Examples: epidemics of influenza or
in the past epidemics of small pox
and bubonic plague
Small Pox
Bubonic Plague
 Pandemic – a disease that is
prevalent thoughout an entire
country or continent or the world
as a whole
Examples: AIDS and H1N1