Ancient Greece Seafaring to World Power 2000 BC- 300 BC Essential Questions • How did the geography of Greece affect the development of civilization • Explain the role of war in Greece’s history. (Persian, Peloponnesian, etc.) • How is mythology an important part of Greece’s history? • What influence did the Greeks have on art, literature, philosophy and sport? • Who are some of the philosophers that influenced western civilization and are still studied today? • Why did the Greeks enjoy cul • tural growth and leave lasting mark on civilization? •The Greek civilization was preceded by an advanced civilization located on the lands surrounding the Agean Sea. •This civilization was known as the Minoan civilization which peaked at about 2000 BC and then suddenly collapsed around 1200 BC. This may have happened due to volcanic activity or tidal waves…this civilization was lost! •The civilization was centered on the island of Crete and is called Minoan after the legendary King Minos. •The Minoan civilization spread from Crete to the Agean Islands, the coast of Asia Minor, and mainland Greece. •After 1450 BC the center of Agean political power moved to Mycenae on the Greek mainland and was called the Mycenaean civilization. •The Minoan economy was based on large scale trade that ranged from Troy to Egypt and from Sicily to Syria. •Minoan exports included olive oil, wine, metalware and beautiful pottery. •All trade was under the monopoly of the efficient and heavily bureaucratized government. •The great palace of Minos was located in Knossos which was the dominant city in Crete after 1700 BC. The palace of Minos is one of the most beautiful architectural achievements of the ancient world. •In many of the Minoan art works women are shown enjoying a freedom and dignity unknown anywhere in the ancient world. •There were advanced sewer systems, running water and an extensive and well paved road network. Part of this culture and worship included the sport of bull-leaping (see above pic). Women as well as men performed this gymnastic feat, which seems to have had religious significance. Bull leaping competitions were held in connection with bull worship rituals. Some commentators say that's a lot of bull--that it is impossible to do what Minoan iconography depicts. But many statuettes and paintings very convincingly portray the tense muscle structures and the postures of the bull jumpers and convey the impression that the artists had observed carefully these details in real life. Leaping over the bull courts death, which can be an assertion of life and a prayer for the continuation of the potency and fertility represented by the bull. The Minoans sacrificed bulls, probably seeing in the bull's blood and death the seed of rebirth. Dueling with the bull is an ancient tradition in the Mediterranean basin and the Near East, and continues today with Spanish bullfights and the annual running of the bulls in Pamplona. Geography’s impact on political developments • The mountainous topography & the many islands created unique sub cultures within the Greek empire. • Each “polis” or city state had their own government. • Government varied with the needs of the people, their culture and their history. Definition Oligarchy Government by a few, especially by a small faction of persons or families Aristocracy 1. A hereditary ruling class; nobility. 2a. Government by a ruling class. b. A state or country having this form of government. 3a. Government by the citizens deemed to be best qualified to lead. b. A state having such a government. Monarchy 1. Government by a monarch. 2. A state ruled or headed by a monarchy Direct Democracy A democracy in which the power to govern lies directly in the hands of the people rather than being exercised through their representatives. (Pure democracy) Indirect Democracy The voting is done by a “selected” group of people. Dictatorship A state or government under dictatorial rule. Absolute control or power Trojan War: MYTH/HISTORY • Around 1700 BC: Aegean Sea/Troy (Asia Minor) • Participants: Troy vs. Sparta (Greeks) • History part: A Trojan prince, Paris kidnaps a Spartan king’s Wife…this sparks a war • Helen: “The face that launched a thousand ships” • The Spartans rally and sent the “Trojan Horse” filled w/ warriors to recapture Helen. • Outcome: Troy was defeated…Helen returns…this is the basis for The Iliad • The Iliad- epic poem written by Homer. This details the war… • The Odyssey- epic poem (Homer) that details Odysseus’ King of Ithaca’s voyage home from Trojan War. SPARTAN GOVERNMENT: Five Ephors: unlimited power. Council of Elders: 28 members all over 60 years of age; proposed laws on which the Assembly voted. Kings: two kings elected by the Assembly; served as high priests, judges, and army commanders. Assembly: all citizens over 30 years of age; elected the officials and voted on major policies. ATHENIAN GOVERNMENT: Assembly: all male citizens over 20 years of age; enjoyed full and final power. Council of Five Hundred: citizens over 30 years of age; chosen by lot, fifty from each tribe; proposed laws to the Assembly. Court: chosen by lot from the citizens; no judge; juries were very large; each juror voted by secret ballot. Archons: nine citizens who at one time were all-powerful, but after reforms the Council of Five Hundred took over most of their powers. http://www.arwhead.com/Greeks/ The ancient Greeks (mainly the Athenians) were a unique people. They believed that individuals should be free as long as they acted within the laws of Greece. This allowed them the opportunity to excel in any direction they chose. Individuality, as the Greeks viewed it, was the basis of their society. The ability to strive for excellence, no matter what the challenge, was what the Athenians so dearly believed in. This strive for excellence was the method from which they achieved such phenomenal accomplishments. These accomplishments astound us to this day. They also believed in the balance of mind and body. Although many of them strove to become soldiers and athletes, others ventured into philosophy, drama, pottery and the arts. The two most important concepts which the ancient Greeks followed were found inscribed on the great shrine of Delphi, which read "Nothing in excess" and "Know thyself". This philosophy greatly impacted the Greek civilization. Athens was the intellectual center of Greece. It was one of the first city-states of its time, and is still world renowned as one of the most famous cities in the world. It was named after Athena, the goddess of wisdom and the city's patron. In 508 BC, Athens became one of the first societies in ancient times to establish democracy. Democracy came from the Greek words, demos, meaning people, and kratein, meaning to rule. This form of government was used at a meeting place which the Greeks called the Assembly. Here the citizens of Athens met monthly and discussed the affairs of state. There were no decisions made by government without first asking the Assembly. Persian Wars • Around 500 BC between the Greeks and the Persians. • The Persians began to invade Greek city-states of the north. • King Darius asks for the surrender of all of the city states…there was a minor revolt in Ionia.. • Persians attempt to crush the Greeks w/ new weapons and a battle on the seas…. More…. • In 490 BC at the plains of Marathon, the Athenians need to help from the Spartans to fight off the Persians…they send a runner (Pheilippides) to call for assistance…after a round trip run of 240 miles…he fights in the Battle of Marathon and then RUNS…24 miles back to Athens and says…. “Nike” or “Rejoice…victory”…he croaks of exhaustion. • He thus sets the frame work for all marathons…God… I love that guy! • • By 480 BC, Xerxes, son of Darius attempts to conquer Greece again… (Sparta…Athens) He was successful early…but then at the Battle of Salamis…(a naval battle) the Athenians flip the boats and drowned their enemies… Outcome: 1. Athens and Sparta become the most powerful citystates. 2. The Dilian League is formed (an early form of the United Nations…kind of) 3. Athens becomes very powerful during this time. It is called the “Age of Pericles”, a golden age of Greece occurs…but hark…other city states grew jealous! • Peloponnesian Wars: Civil Wars of Ancient Greece. (around 431 BC-404BC) 27 years Main idea of the Conflict: 1. Disagreements between Athens and Sparta 2. Athens was in the Delian League and gained political domination of the Mediterranean Sea. 3. Sparta and others attacked Athens 4. Pericles and Athens surrounded…then a disease befalls Athens killing 1/3 of the city…it was swift and over… Outcomes…next slide! Outcome of the war • • • • • Athens’ Navy is destroyed End to democratic forms of Gov’t End of the Athenian Golden Age Pericles’ death Athens was no longer the political and social center. Greek Architecture • The Ancient Greeks, especially Athenians, were blessed with close marble quarries. In comparison, the Romans had to go great distances to bring marble into their capital of Rome. • The marble was very strong and could hold very large loads of weight. Because of this the Greeks were able to build beautiful temples and buildings which are copied or imitated even to present day. The architecture of the temples took three major forms; the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. • All three styles can be quickly identified by the top of the columns. • The Doric columns are a circular ring under a square piece of marble which supports the cross beam. • The Ionic column tops appear to have two scrolls on either side of the column right below the cross beam. • The Corinthian is an out growth of the Ionic. • It takes the simple scroll look of the Ionic and dresses it up in much more ornamental designs. • The Corinthian style also differs in that the temple is set up in a circle. In comparison the Doric and Ionic are in shapes of squares and rectangles. The following pictures show the clear distinctions between the styles Temple of Poseidon 'Death of Socrates', painted by Jacques Louis David (1787): The scene portrays the execution of Socrates by hemlock poisoning after he was found guilty as charged by the Athenian court in 399 B.C. • Philosophy Greek philosophers, or "lovers of wisdom," used observation and reason to study the world around them. This spirit of inquiry led to advancements in the arts and sciences, as well as examining the best form of government for men to live under. Famous philosophers include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. • Socrates “Know thyself” Greek Philosophers: Sophists: Men of Wisdom The “big” three Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Socrates: 469-399 BC He actually wrote nothing, but his works/ideas saved by his student Plato. Socratic Method- Questioning to obtain the answers. At the age of 70 put on trial for failure to respect the Gods: The Trial of Socrates I.F. Stone details his trial and death. He drank hemlock Famous for The Apology which he values Greek ideas even though he will die because of his beliefs. • Plato (427-347) BC Socrates’ famous student He had ideas about gov’t and an ideal society The Republic He rejected pure democracy. It would led to mob rule. An enlightened ruler/dictator was fine w/ him. He felt gov’t should run people’s lives Women should have some rights, 3 classes: worker, philosophers and soldiers. He helped run the Academy after Socrates’ death. • Aristotle 384-322 BC Founder of “western” philosophy He created the school of the Lyceum He followed Plato’s teachings He tutored Alexander the Great He too was suspicious of pure democracy A strong virtuous leader was important to him. He wrote about logic, ethics, mathematics and sciences • The Scientific Method is one of his legacies… Socrates Plato Aristotle Socratic Wrote The Developed ideas Method of Republic on government questioning as a Favored a strong, Favored the one learning tool. controlling strong and wise government rule as best form. Considered to be Society has three first western classes: philosopher Philosophers, Soldiers, and Workers Human Reason was the key to learning • Hellenistic : Time period from the late 4th century BCE to the 1st century CE that was characterized by Greek achievement and a blending of Persian, Egyptian, Greek, and Indian cultures due to the empire of Alexander the Great. • Background Ancient Greek and Hellenistic cultural achievements span two different eras. The Ancient Greek golden age occurs under the leadership of Pericles in the 5th century BCE. These achievements were mainly confined to the city-state of Athens, where a strong economy and good government created the conditions necessary for such advancements. The Hellenistic golden age occurs under the leadership of Alexander the Great, who conquered an empire stretching from the Greek mainland all the way to the Indus River Valley. Hellenistic society was a blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and many other cultures that gave rise to advancements in math, science, art, and literature. The Death of Alexander... The death of Alexander the Great is still shrouded in mystery to this day. It seems hard to believe that a 33year-old man could die of natural causes that spring up out of the blue, and consequently, modern historians have made many attempts to explain exactly what happened. According to Plutarch, the events leading up to his death are as follows: Alexander proceeded to Babylon, even after receiving word of several bad omens, such as ravens fighting each other over the city wall with some falling dead right in front of him, a man with a deformed liver being sacrificed in the king's honor, and his best lion was kicked to death by an ass. The god Serapis told a man to put on the king's robes and sit upon the throne. These all served as warnings to Alexander about what may lie in store for him, but they did not deter him. Once in Babylon, he drank heavily at several banquets. One such banquet was hosted by his friend, Medius. In the Armenian version of the story, Psuedo-Callisthenes wrote that this banquet was a conspiracy involving Iollas, Cassander, and others who were unhappy with Alexander. They gave him poisoned wine, and immediately after drinking it, Alexander felt as if he had "been hit in the liver with an arrow." When he tried to throw it back up, he was given a poisoned feather, which ensured that the poison would reach his blood stream. He proceeded to get very sick and his condition deteriorated until his death. Plutarch did not believe this version, saying the sudden pain Alexander felt after drinking was a detail "with which certain historians felt obliged to embellish the occasion, and thus invent a tragic and moving finale to a great action. Aristobulus tells us that he was seized with a raging fever, that when he became thirsty he drank wine which made him delirious." We will probably never know the truth, even though new theories are still coming out. We do know that on the 7th of June, 323 BC, the Macedonians were allowed to file past their leader for the last time and finally, three days later, he succumbed to the illness. Thus, on June 10, 323 BC, Alexander the Great died at the age of 33.