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Types of Bonds
____________- share electrons
____________- transfer electrons
What type of bond is in between the oxygen
and hydrogen of a water molecule?
Covalent Bond
Butttt……..oxygen is a little
greedy with the electrons. It
holds on to them more often
then hydrogen; therefore,
oxygen has a partial negative
charge and the hydrogen have
partial positive charges. This
is called POLARITY!
_____________: Having a slight positive
charge at one end and a slight negative
charge on the other
 This allows water to bond with many other
molecules, but not with _____________
molecules (oil)
 This also allows water to have a flexible
Water molecules are attracted to each
other like magnets because of the partial
Water forms multiple bonds with other
water molecules
This ability to form multiple bonds gives
water is several unique characteristics!
 Adhesion
 Surface Tension (Due to cohesion and
 High specific heat
 Good solvent
Cohesion and Adhesion
__________: Attraction between
two water molecules
 Allows water to form drops and
freeze into ice
 __________: Attraction between water and
other molecules.
 Allows water to climb in tree roots and
stems, and for insects to walk on water
Made Possible by Cohesion
Due to cohesion and
Allows some spiders to walk
on water
Water heats up and cools slowly
 Allows living things to maintain a
stable temperature
 Allows aquatic organisms to adapt to
seasonal changes
 EX. Humans don’t boil when
it’s 100F out or
freeze if it’s -10F
Why does California have such seasonal
weather (winters around 40 and summers
around high 70s) whereas Pennsylvania
has constant temperature fluctuations
(winters around low 20s and summers
around high 80s)?
Polar vs. Non-polar
Nonpolar molecules do NOT have a charge.
 Water will bond with other polar molecules
 Sugar, salt, and proteins will all dissolve in
 Fats and non-polar molecules will either not
dissolve in water or form a “suspension”
where they will not completely dissolve
Carbon (___________)
Molecules that contain carbon
 They will typically contain hydrogen and
oxygen as well
 Very stable compounds
Carbon Bonding
Carbon has 4 electrons in outer
level, needs 8 total to be stable
 Will bond with multiple other
elements, including itself
 Forms long chains that
become fats and proteins
 Can form long, complex
Functional Groups
Carbon bonds with Oxygen, Hydrogen, and
Nitrogen very easily
 __________________: combinations of
carbon binding with oxygen, hydrogen,
nitrogen, and sulfur
 These determine how
compounds combine
with other compounds
Large Carbon Molecules
________________: small, simple carbon
molecules that join together to become large
carbon chains-- (_______________)
 This is known as “Polymerization”– forms
fats, proteins and carbs
How do we hook
monomers together?
In order to get monomers to link together to
form a polymer, a condensation reaction (or
___________________) has to occur. A
water molecule is removed. Also known as a
How do we break polymers
_______________- the addition of a water
molecules in order to break chemical bonds
Occurs in your mouth as soon as you chew
your food
Energy Currency
Food gets broken down into ATP
 Chemical energy (sugar) is transferred into
another form of chemical energy (ATP)
 __________: molecule that stores energy for
living things
Several living organisms use ATP to store
and release energy.
 ATP = adenosine triphosphate
 Made up of adenine, ribose, and three
phosphate groups
3 Phosphate groups
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Molecules of Life
 Proteins
 Lipids
 Nucleic acids
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms
 Main source of quick energy for most
 4 Calories of energy/gram of Carb
 _____________: single simple sugars such
as glucose and fructose
 _____________: starches
 Examples are sugars,
breads, pasta
Carbs are organic compounds composed of
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1
ratio. Carbohydrates tend to be used for
immediate energy in animals.
 Ex: Glucose C6H12O6
2) ______________
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen AND nitrogen
Found naturally in animal muscle and skin
4 Calories of energy/gram
They are used for several purposes in the body
 Enzymes
 Lactase breaks down sugar lactose
 Receptors and cell signaling
 Antibodies target foreign cells
 Structural proteins
 Actin is a protein fiber found in cells
Hormones (some)
 Adrenaline
The monomers or “building blocks” of
proteins are ____________________
 These 20 amino acids form together to make
long protein chains
 Amino acids combine using
“_______________”. These are just the
name for the covalent bonds between amino
Amino Acids
Central Carbon Atom, Single hydrogen atom, Carboxyl
Group (-COOH), an amino group (-NH2), and an R group
(which can be one of 20 different structures)
The R group (in purple) are what give proteins their
different roles and allow proteins to form several
different shapes.
When two amino acids combine they form a
“peptide” bond.
 ___________: many peptide bonds--proteins
 Proteins (polypeptides) can be damaged or
________________ by heat and extreme
Act as catalysts in our bodies – speed up
chemical reactions
 Proteins that change other molecules
 An enzyme will always bond to a
______________: this is the molecule that is
being changed.
 Make reactions easier (lower activation
 Fit like a “lock and key”
Enzyme-substrate model
Factors that affect
 pH
 Concentrations of substrate
Defensive proteins produced by plasma
cells-white blood cells that produce
antibodies and secrete them into the blood
 Y-shaped and bond to __________-invasive
cells like viruses and bacteria, pollen,
venom, or toxins-tagging them to be
attacked by other cells or blocking them from
attacking cells in your body
Important part of immune system
 Body makes millions of different types of
lymphocyte cells-each carrying different
shaped protein receptors which recognize
different antigens then
release antibodies
3) __________ (have the
most energy)
Large non-polar molecules that do not
dissolve in water (nonpolar)
 Made up of large amounts of hydrogen and
carbon and a little oxygen.
 Large amounts of stored energy in carbonhydrogen bonds
 9 Calories/gram of fat
 Known as “fats”
 1. fats 2. oils 3. waxes
Structure of lipids
Made mostly of long chains known as
Type of lipid found in cell
membranes of animal cells
 Has a “water loving”
end __________________
 Has a “water fearing”
end ________________
Complex lipids
________________: Fat that is usually a
solid at room temperature, Crisco (3 fatty
acid tails)
 ________________: Found in the cell
membrane, will not dissolve in water (2 tails)
 ______: Type of fat found in ears of
humans, will not dissolve in water.
Three fatty acids (tri) hooked to a glycerol
molecule (glyceride)
 Saturated fats- single bonds between all the
carbons; solid at room temperature
 Unsaturated fats- some
double bonds between
some of the carbons; liquid
at room temp
Structure of Triglycerides
Testosterone is a male hormone that is a
 Cholesterol is a steroid that is needed for
nerve cells to function properly
 Necessary for living
DNA: Nucleic Acid
Nucleic acids
Made of Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen,
Hydrogen, and Phosphorus
 Molecules that store information
 Monomers of DNA and RNA are
________________: 4 different bases
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine
Made of 4 nitrogen bases
 Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine
 Base-Pairing Rules says:
 A hooks to T
 G hooks to C