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Anatomical Position
 Used to help describe the location of one body part with respect to another.
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Standing erect
Facing forward
Legs slightly apart
Palms forward
Terms
 Superior – above, upper
 Inferior – below, lower
 Example:
 The head is superior to the waist.
 Anterior (Ventral) – towards the front
 Posterior (Dorsal) – towards the back
 Example:
 Your nose is on the anterior surface of the head.
 Medial – closer to the imaginary midline
 Think medial is middle
 Lateral – further from the midline
 Think towards the outside
 Example:
 The ears are lateral to the eyes.
 Referring just to arms and legs:
 Proximal – near the joint (point of attachment)
 Distal – further from the joint (point of attachment)
 Think distal is more distance
 Example:
 The thigh is more proximal to the knee, than the foot.
Parts of a Bone
 Periosteum
 The layer that covers a bone.
 Membrane that controls the development of bone
Two Tissues:
 Compact Bone
 The hardest part of a bone.
 Spongy Bone
 Lighter, full of tiny holes.
 Contains many blood vessels.
 Bone Marrow
 The center of bones.
 Responsible for making red and white blood cells.
Types of Bones
 Flat Bones
 Provide protection for soft tissues.
 Are points for muscle attachment.
 Example: bones of the skull.
 Long Bones
 Provide strength and support.
 Example: bones of the arms and legs.
 Short Bones
 Not much longer than they are wide.
 Provide flexibility.
 Example: bones of the wrists and ankles.
 Irregular Bones
 Have shapes related to a specialized function.
 Examples: Bone of middle ear, backbone.
Functions of Bones
 Supports the body (framework).
 Protects internal organs.
 Stores calcium.
 Produces new red and white blood cells.
 In the bone marrow.
 Helps with movement, attachment of muscles.
 Bones and muscles work together.
Joints
 The point (place) where the bones meet.
 There are five types of joints.
 Immoveable
 Bones fit tightly together.
 Example: skull.
 Hinge
 Allow back and forth movement.
 Example: elbow and knee.
 Ball and Socket
 Allow movements in all direction.
 Example: hip and shoulder.
 Pivot
 Allow side to side and up and down movements.
 Example: base of skull with neck.
 Gliding or Ellipsoidal
 Allow some bending and twisting movements.
 Examples: wrists, vertebra
Ligaments
 A band of tough, fibrous, elastic tissue.
 Made up of collagen.
 Keeps the bones of a joint in place.
 Supports the joint.
 Injury to a ligament is called a sprain.
Facts
 There are 206 bones in the adult skeleton.
 Babies are born with over 350 bones.
 Some eventually fuse together.
 The Skeletal System is made of bone and cartilage and does include joints.
 Bone is not dead.
 It is constantly growing, changing, and developing.
 Over half your bones are in your hands and feet.