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Skeletal System
3 functions of the skeleton
• Movement
• Shape/Support
• Protection e.g. the skull and other organs.
The Hinge Joint
This includes the Elbow and the Knee Joint.
It is Capable of Bending (Flexion) and Straightening (Extension) E.g.
• the elbow flexes on a bicep curl, and extends to straighten the arm.
• The knee joint, flexes when a footballer prepares to kick the ball
and then extends to strike the ball.
The joint is connected by 2 smooth shallow surfaces and held in place
by strong Ligaments
The Ball and Socket Joint
This includes the Hip Joint and the Shoulder Joint.
It is capable of flexion, extension, adduction, abduction and rotation.
It is called a ball and socket joint as one bone such as the Humerous (arm) is a long
bone with a ball like end and the other is a cub shaped socket (shoulder) in which
the femur fits in to. These are covered in cartilage and held in place by ligaments.
Examples include
• Bowling in cricket (forward rotation), swimming back crawl (backward rotation)
• Abduction occurs as the arm is brought behind the body in preparation to throw a
ball or javelin.
Effects of exercise on the Skeletal System
• Increases bone density when bones become heavier and stronger
• Ligaments (bone to bone) and Tendons (bone to muscle) become thicker
and stronger increasing joint flexibility and more power of movement
Weight-bearing exercise
• As people get older their bones become lighter and their density and
strength is reduced. If too much is lost i.e. due to lack of activity or
nutrients then the skeleton can become weak this is called Osteoporosis.
• Putting weight and pressure on certain bones by doing activities such as
walking, running, aerobics etc can help strengthen bones.
• Yoga is also a useful weight bearing exercise as it also improves balance,
reducing the chances of falling.
Injuries to the skeletal System
A fracture is a cracked or broken bone.
Closed Fracture – the skin is not broken or damaged
Compound Fracture – the broken bone protrudes (sticks out) through the skin.
Simple Fracture – fracture takes place in one line, no displacement of the bone, only part of the bone
Stress Fractures
These can occur due to:
a result of the muscle become fatigued and unable to absorb shock.
increasing the amount or intensity of exercise too rapidly
using hard surfaces
Poor fitting shoes.
Joint Injuries
Tennis/Golfers elbow
Overuse injury – pain around the elbow.
This is when a bone at a joint is forced out of its normal position caused by a hard impact. The most
obvious sign is deformity and swelling at the joint.
A sprain is a damage ligament (A strain is a torn/pulled muscle), this occurs such as a twisted ankle in
netball or football.
These usually occur due to twisting or stretching too far past the normal range of a joint due to falling,
twisting or colliding with another player.
Torn Cartilage
• Cartilage is a firm elastic substance found at the ends of the bones of a synovial joint.
• Tearing it for example at the knee, can often be cause by pivoting on one foot. If the cartilage is
torn the sufferer will often be in pain and fall to the ground.
• R- Rest – stop playing or training
• I – Ice – apply ice to reduce any swelling.
• C – Compression – use pressure to apply the
ice pack and help relieve pain
• E – Elevation – keeping the injury raised can
reduce swelling
• Calcium – helps bones grow and increases bone density
(strength) e.g. milk, cheese
• Vitamin D – is needed for growth, healthy bones and to
absorb calcium. It is made in the body through exposure to
Weight Bearing exercise
• Prevents Osteoporosis
Smoking and alcohol
• Have a toxic effect on bones and can cause weakening