Download Joints of the body - Harrison High School

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Classification and mobility
Fibrous- no joint cavity, joined by fibrous
tissue, mobility depends on the length of the
tissue, most are immovable
Cartilaginous- lack a cavity and bones are
joined by cartilage which allows for
compression and resilience but not mobility
Synovial – fluid containing joint cavity,
freedom of movement, majority of joints
◦ Bones connected by short fibers
◦ Immovable
◦ Found in the skull
◦ Bones connected by longer fibers, ligaments
◦ Ex. The connection of the tibia and fibia, immovable
◦ Ex. The connection of the radius and ulna slightly
movable allowing for rotation
◦ Periodontal ligament
◦ Connects the tooth to the bony alveolar socket
◦ Immovable as if “hammered in”
◦ A plate of hyaline cartilage unites the two bones
◦ Joint between the growth plate of long bones and
the mature bone, seen in children
◦ Joint between the first rib and the manubrium of
the sternum
◦ The hyaline cartilage at the end of the bone is
connected to a pad of fibrocartilage which is more
compressible and resilient, allowing the joint to
absorb shock and be flexible
◦ Intervertebral joints and the pubic symphysis of the
pelvic bone
Same general structure
Types: plane, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle,
ball and socket
Freely movable, depends on design
Bursae and Tendon Sheaths
◦ Assist with flexibility of the joint
◦ Bursae are fluid filled sacs that line the area where
ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, and bones rub
a. Plane
b. Hinge
c. Pivot
d. Condyloid
e. Saddle
f. Ball and
Every skeletal muscle is attached in no less
than two points.
◦ Muscle origin is attached to an immovable bone
◦ Muscle insertion is attached to a movable bone
Movement occurs when muscles contract
across a joint
Described by the direction in relation to the
axis: nonaxial, uniaxial, biaxial, multiaxial
Gliding- simple back-and-forth, and side to side
◦ Include the tarsal and carpal
◦ Include the vertebra
◦ And is incorporated into other movements
Angular- increase or decrease the angle between
Rotation- turning a bone on its axis
two bones
◦ Movement of limb by flexion, extension, abduction,
adduction, circumduction
◦ Include hip and shoulder
◦ Include the 1st two cervical vertebrae
Common Joint Injuries
 Sprain- ligaments stretched or torn
 Cartilage injuries- can not heal must be
removed or joints can get locked up
 Dislocations- bones are forced out of
Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions
Bursistis- inflammation of the bursa
Tendonitis- inflamation of tendon sheaths
Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Gout Arthritis- high uric acid levels accumulate
and inflame the joints