Download Joints of the body - Harrison High School

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
Classification and mobility



Fibrous- no joint cavity, joined by fibrous
tissue, mobility depends on the length of the
tissue, most are immovable
Cartilaginous- lack a cavity and bones are
joined by cartilage which allows for
compression and resilience but not mobility
Synovial – fluid containing joint cavity,
freedom of movement, majority of joints

Suture
◦ Bones connected by short fibers
◦ Immovable
◦ Found in the skull

Syndesmosis
◦ Bones connected by longer fibers, ligaments
◦ Ex. The connection of the tibia and fibia, immovable
◦ Ex. The connection of the radius and ulna slightly
movable allowing for rotation

Gomphoses
◦ Periodontal ligament
◦ Connects the tooth to the bony alveolar socket
◦ Immovable as if “hammered in”

Synchondroses
◦ A plate of hyaline cartilage unites the two bones
◦ Joint between the growth plate of long bones and
the mature bone, seen in children
◦ Joint between the first rib and the manubrium of
the sternum

Symphyses
◦ The hyaline cartilage at the end of the bone is
connected to a pad of fibrocartilage which is more
compressible and resilient, allowing the joint to
absorb shock and be flexible
◦ Intervertebral joints and the pubic symphysis of the
pelvic bone

Same general structure
Types: plane, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle,
ball and socket
Freely movable, depends on design

Bursae and Tendon Sheaths


◦ Assist with flexibility of the joint
◦ Bursae are fluid filled sacs that line the area where
ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, and bones rub
together.






a. Plane
b. Hinge
c. Pivot
d. Condyloid
e. Saddle
f. Ball and
socket

Every skeletal muscle is attached in no less
than two points.
◦ Muscle origin is attached to an immovable bone
◦ Muscle insertion is attached to a movable bone


Movement occurs when muscles contract
across a joint
Described by the direction in relation to the
axis: nonaxial, uniaxial, biaxial, multiaxial

Gliding- simple back-and-forth, and side to side
◦ Include the tarsal and carpal
◦ Include the vertebra
◦ And is incorporated into other movements

Angular- increase or decrease the angle between

Rotation- turning a bone on its axis
two bones
◦ Movement of limb by flexion, extension, abduction,
adduction, circumduction
◦ Include hip and shoulder
◦ Include the 1st two cervical vertebrae
Common Joint Injuries
 Sprain- ligaments stretched or torn
 Cartilage injuries- can not heal must be
removed or joints can get locked up
 Dislocations- bones are forced out of
alignment
Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions
Bursistis- inflammation of the bursa
Tendonitis- inflamation of tendon sheaths
Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Gout Arthritis- high uric acid levels accumulate
and inflame the joints