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Transcript
Anatomy of Skeletal Elements
The Musculoskeletal system
• 206 bones
• grouped into the axial and appendicular
skeletons
• 650 muscles
– approximately 40% of your body weight
– also divided into an axial and an appendicular
division
Classification of Bones
• 6 types - based on anatomical
classification
– Long bones = greater length than width
– Short bones = cube-shaped, spongy
bone except at surface
– Flat bones = two parallel plates of
compact bone sandwiching spongy bone
layer
– Irregular bones = cannot be grouped
– Sesamoid bones = develop in tendons
where there is considerable friction,
tension and stress
– Sutural bones = located within joints
between cranial bones
Bone Markings (surface features)
• Used to identify specific elevations,
depressions, and openings of bones
• Bone markings provide distinct and
characteristic landmarks for orientation and
identification of bones and associated
structures.
Bony Processes
• Depressions and openings
–
–
–
–
–
Fissure – narrow slit
Foramen – hole for nerves, blood vessels
Fossa – cuplike depression
Sulcus – furrow on a bone surface, contains a nerve or blood vessel
Meatus – tubelike opening
• Processes – projection or outgrowth on bone for attachment
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Condyle – smoothened process at end of bone, forms a joint
Facet – smooth flat surface, forms a joint
Head – rounded condyle on a neck, forms a joint
Crest – prominent ridge or projection, for attachment of connective tissues
Epicondyle – projection above a condyle, for attachment of connective tissues
Line – long, narrow ridge (less prominent than a crest), for attachment of
connective tissues
Spinous process – sharp, slender projection, for attachment of connective tissues
Trochanter – process of the femur, for attachment of connective tissues
Tubercle – process of the humerus, for attachment of connective tissues
Tuberosity – roughening on a bone surface, for attachment of connective tissues
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM:
AXIAL DIVISION
Part A
Skeletal system includes
• Axial division
– Skull and associated bones
• Auditory ossicles
• Hyoid bones
– Vertebral column
– Thoracic cage
• Ribs sternum
• Appendicular division
-Pectoral girdle
-Pelvic girdle
The Axial Skeleton
• Axial division
– Skull and associated bones
• Auditory ossicles
• Hyoid bones
– Vertebral column
– Thoracic cage
• Ribs sternum
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Adult Skull
•skull = 22 bones
•cranium = 8 bones: frontals, occipital, temporals, parietals, sphenoid and ethmoid
•facial bones = 14 bones: nasals, maxillae, zygomatics, mandible, lacrimals, palatines,
inferior nasal conchae, vomer
•skull forms a larger cranial cavity
-also forms the nasal cavity, the orbits, paranasal sinuses
•mandible and auditory ossicles are the only movable skull bones
•skull contains many holes for the passage of nerves and vessels = foramen/foramina
•cranial bones also: attach to membranes called meninges
-stabilize positions of the brain, blood vessels
-outer surface provides large areas for muscle attachment that
move the head or provide facial expressions
black eyes: superior to the supraorbital ridge is a sharp ridge
-a blow will fracture the bone and result in bleeding & inflammation
cleft lip and palate: palatine processes usually unite at embryonic weeks 10-12
-failure results in a hole = cleft palate
-the palatine bones themselves may fail to fuse
-a split in the upper lip may also result = cleft lip
-complications: speech, swallowing, ear infections -> hearing loss
-closure of cleft lip - few weeks after birth
-closure of cleft palate - 12 to 18 months
TMJ: associated with the temperomandibular joint
-dull pain around ear, tenderness of jaw, difficulty chewing, headache
-results from grinding of teeth and clenching of jaws
-no permanent treatments
deviated nasal septum: nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into right and left
halves
-three components: vomer, septal cartilage & perpendicular plate of the
ethmoid
-deviation results in a later deflection of the septum
-severe deviation may affect breathin
Sutures
• Immovable joints
• Form boundaries between skull bones
• Four main sutures
–
–
–
–
–
Coronal
Sagittal
Lambdoid
Squamous
PLUS lots of smaller sutures
• e.g Frontonasal
• e.g. Temperozygomatic
Skull: Posterior View
• Occipital bone
• Part of the base of the skull
• Surrounds the foramen magnum
• Forms part of the jugular
foramen
Mastoid notch
•Parietal bones
-Part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the cranium
Temporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid
Frontal process of zygomatic
Squamous
portion
Lacrimal bone
Petrous
portion
Tympanic
portion
Maxillary process
of zygomatic
Articular
Tubercle
•Temporal bone
-Forms wall of jugular foramen
-Petrous part houses tympanic cavity
Auditory ossicles transmit sound to inner ear
Supraorbital ridge
Or margin
glabella
Internasal suture
Frontal process of maxilla
Zygomatic process
of maxilla
• Frontal bone
– Forms the forehead
– Roof of the orbit
glabella
The Orbit
• Orbital complex
– Bony recess that holds the eye
– Seven bones
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Frontal bone
Lacrimal bones
Palatine bones
Zygomatic bones
Ethmoid
Sphenoid
Maxillae
Skull: Inferior View
Basilar
Portion
Condylar fossa
Condylar foramen
may be present
Petrous
portion
Skull: Interior View
Figure 6.4 Sectional Anatomy of
the Skull, Part I
Tuberculum sellae
Cerebral surface of
Greater wing of sphenoid
Hypophyseal fossa
Dorsum sella
Lesser wing of sphenoid
Foramen
Rotundum
Sella
Turcica
• Sphenoid bone
–
–
–
–
Contributes to floor of cranium
Bridges cranial and facial bones
Optic canal allows passage of optic nerve
Pterygoid processes sites of muscle attachment
• Ethmoid Bone
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Irregularly shaped bone
Forms part of orbital wall
Forms roof of nasal cavity
Cribriform plate
Perforations for olfactory nerve
Perpendicular plate
Nasal septum
Cranial Fossae
Cranial Fossae
• Depressions in cranial
floor
• Anterior cranial fossa
– Frontal bone, ethmoid,
lesser wings of
sphenoid
• Middle cranial fossa
– Sphenoid, temporal
bones, parietal bones
• Posterior cranial fossa
– Occipital bone,
temporal bones,
parietal bones
Bones of the Face
• Maxillae
– Paired bone
– Largest facial bones
– Form upper jaw
• Mandible
– Entire lower jaw
– Articulates with temporal bone
– Temporomandibular joint
• Nasal bones
– Paired bones
– Articulate with frontal bone
– Extend to superior border of external nares
• Vomer
– Forms inferior portion of nasal septum
– Articulates with maxillae and palatines
• Inferior nasal concha
– Located on each side of nasal septum
– Increase epithelial surface
– Create turbulence in inspired air
• Zygomatic bone
– Temporal process articulates with zygomatic process of temporal bone
– Forms zygomatic arch
• Lacrimal bones
– Smallest bones in skull
– Forms nasolacrimal groove leading to nasolacrimal canal
– Delivers tears to nasal cavity
• Palatine bones
– Small
– L-shaped
– Form posterior portion of hard
palate
– Contribute to floor of orbit
• Bones and
cartilage that
enclose the nasal
cavity
• Paranasal sinuses
– Hollow airways
– Frontal bones,
sphenoid, ethmoid
and maxillae
The Nasal Complex
Skull: Sagittal View
The Paranasal Sinuses
The Hyoid Bone
• Suspended by stylohyoid ligaments
• Consists of a body, greater horns and lesser
horns
• Base for muscles of the tongue and larynx
The Skulls of Infants, Children and
Adults
Fontanels
• Fibrous connections
• Permit infant skulls to pass through birth
canal
• Permit the skulls of infants and children to
continue growth
• The flat bones in the infant skull are
separated by fontanels, which allow for
cranial expansion and the distortion of the
skull during birth.
Adult Vertebral Column
• strong, flexible rod
– average male = 71 cm (28 inches)
– average female – 61 cm (24 inches)
• capable of moving
–
–
–
–
anteriorly
posteriorly
laterally
also rotation
• supports the head
• encloses and protects the spinal cord
• allows for the exit of 31 pairs of spinal
nerves – through intervertebral
foramina
Adult Vertebral Column
• 26 vertebrae
– 24 individual vertebrae
– Sacrum – 5 fused vertebrae
– Coccyx – 4 fused vertebrae
• Seven cervical vertebrae
• Twelve thoracic vertebrae
• Five lumbar vertebrae
Adult Vertebral Column
• vertebrae separated by
intervertebral discs
– discs of fibrocartilage made up
of an outer ring and a softer
inner region
– found between C1 and C2 and
all the way down to between L5
and the sacrum
– form the joints of the vertebral
column
– absorb shock – flatten, broaden
and bulge outward
– weakening in the outer ring can
allow the herniation of the inner
material
Spinal Curvature
• Four curvatures: increase the strength of the column
–
–
–
–
Thoracic (primary) – forms fetally and retain the curve of the fetus
Sacral (primary) – forms fetally and retain the curve of the fetus
Cervical (secondary) – forms when the baby holds its head erect
Lumbar (secondary) – forms upon walking
• Every vertebrae has the
following:
– 1. body – weight bearing part
of the vertebra
• separated by the discs
– 2. vertebral arch – surrounds
the spinal cord
• surrounds a hole called a
vertebral foramen
– 3. processes – seven of them
• 1. Spinous (1) – muscle
attachment
• 2. Transverse (2) – muscle
attachment
• 3. Superior articular (2) –
forms joint with upper vertebra
• 4. Inferior articular (2) – forms
joint with lower vertebra
Cervical Vertebra
Thoracic Vertebra
Lumbar
Fused Vertebrae: The sacrum & coccyx
•
•
Sacrum - Union of 5 vertebrae (S1 - S5) – completely fused by age 30
– median sacral crest = spinous processes
– sacral ala = fused transverse processes
– sacral canal ends at sacral hiatus
Coccyx = Union of 4 vertebrae (Co1 - Co4) – completely fused by age 30
Sternum & Rib Cage
• sternum is comprised of three portions:
– manubrium
– body
– xiphoid process
• 12 pairs of ribs
-three kinds of ribs:
1. True – separate & direct
connection to the sternum
via costal cartilage
2. False – no direct
connection to the sternum –
joined via a composite piece
of costal cartilage
3. Floating – no connection
to the sternum
Sternum & Rib Cage
• several muscles and muscle groups either originate from the
sternum and/or ribcage (or costal cartilages) or insert onto these
structures
– sternum:
• sternocleidomastoid
• sternohyoid & sternothryoid – depresses hyoid bone and larynx
– ribcage:
•
•
•
•
•
intercostals – external and internal
serratus anterior & posterior
numerous muscles of the vertebral column
pectoralis major & minor
4 muscles of the abdominal wall
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM:
APPENDICULAR DIVISION
Part A
Appendicular Skeleton
• Bones of upper and lower limbs
• Pectoral and pelvic girdles
– Connect limbs to trunk
• Includes
Shoulder Girdle
– Scapula (shoulder blade)
– Clavicle (collarbone)
• Squares shoulders
• Helps move the upper limb
• Provides a base for muscle attachment
Clavicle
• S-shaped bone
• Connects manubrium of sternum to the acromion process of scapula
• Only direct connection between pectoral girdle and axial skeleton
The Scapula
•
•
Medial or vertebral border is the insertion point for the rhomboids, levator scapulae & serratus
anterior
Two processes attached to ligaments and tendons
–
–
Coracoid process – e.g insertion for pectoralis minor, origin of biceps
Acromion process – e.g. origin of the deltoid
•
•
•
continues on to become the scapular spine
Articulates at the round head of the humerus to form the glenohumoral joint
Articulates with clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint
Figure 7.5a, b The Scapula
The Humerus
• articulates with glenoid cavity
• articular capsule attaches at anatomical
neck
• trochlea and capitulum form joints
with the ulna and radius = elbow joint
• numerous muscles insert at greater and
lesser tubercle
– greater tubercle – insertion of 3 rotator
cuff muscles + pectoralis major
– lesser tubercle – insertion for the other
rotator cuff
• intertubercular groove – insertion for
latissimus dorsi
• deltoid tuberosity
– insertion of deltoid muscle
The Radius and Ulna
• Parallel bones of the forearm
• radial tuberosity – insertion
point for the biceps brachii
• Olecranon process of ulna
articulates with olecranon
fossa of humerus
– olecranon process is a major
point of muscle attachment for
the triceps
• Coronoid fossa of humerus
accommodates coronoid
process of ulna
– insertion for the major forearm
flexor = brachialis
Carpal Bones
• 8 wrist bones
• Two rows, proximal and distal
– scaphoid bone, lunate bone, triquetrum, pisiform
– trapezium, trapezoid bone, capitate bone, hamate bone
– scaphoid = most commonly injured carpal bone
• fall on the outstretched hand – fracture into two separate pieces (tears blood vessels)
Some
lovers try
positions
that they
can’t
handle
Metacarpal Bones
• Articulate with distal
carpals
• Distally articulate with
phalanges
– Fingers have three
phalanges
– Pollex has two
The Pelvic Girdle
• The pelvic girdle consists of the two ossa coxae.
• ossa coxae
– Ilium
– Ischium
– Pubis
• Ilium
–
–
–
–
–
–
Largest hip bone
Acetabulum
Accommodates head of femur
Fused to ischium posteriorly
Fused to pubis anteriorly
Pubic symphysis limits movement
The Pelvic Girdle
• The pelvic girdle consists of the two ossa coxae united at the
pubic symphysis anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly
• union between pelvis and sacrum = sacroiliac joint
• os coxa
– Ilium
– Ischium
– Pubis
The Pelvic Girdle
• Ilium
– Largest hip bone
– Fused to ischium
posteriorly
– Fused to pubis anteriorly
via the superior ramus
• Pubis
– “pubic bone”
– superior & inferior ramus
• rami connect to the ilium and ischium
• surrounds the obturator foramen
– pubic symphysis is pad of
fibrocartilage between 2 pubic bones
• known as an amphithrotic (slightly
movable) joint
• Ischium
– “sit bones”
– ischial spine & tuberosity
• ischial tuberosity – site of origin
for hamstrings and adductor
magnus
– lesser sciatic notch
– ramus unites with the pubis
–
–
–
–
–
–
– inferior pubic ramus for origin of iliacus
(hip flexor), gracilis, adductor brevis and
magnus (hip adductors)
– superior pubic ramus for origin of the hip
adductor pectineus
– pubic crest/tubercle for origin of adductor
longus
iliac fossa for origin of iliacus
iliac crest for origin of gluteus maximus and
medius
anterior gluteal line for origin of gluteus medius
anterior superior iliac spine for origin of
sartorius
anterior inferior iliac spine for origin of rectus
femoris
greater sciatic notch for passage of sciatic nerve
Figure 7.12a-c Divisions of the
Pelvis
Female vs. Male Pelvis
•
•
•
•
•
•
Smoother
Lighter
Less prominent markings
Enlarged pelvic outlet
Less sacral curvature
Wider more circular pelvic
inlet
• Broader pubic angle
Female Pelvis
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Smoother
Lighter
Less prominent markings
Enlarged pelvic outlet
Less sacral curvature
Wider more circular pelvic inlet
Broader pubic angle
The Femur
• Longest bone in body
– takes 5 months to completely replace
• Rounded head on an anatomical
neck
– fits into the acetabulum of the pelvis to
form the hip joint
• Distal medial and lateral condyles
articulate with tibia – to form the
knee joint
– knee joint is a hinge joint capable of one
plane of motion
•
•
Large tendon attachments to the
trochanters and the linea aspera
Linea aspera
–
–
–
•
roughened line on the back of the
femur
origin for the hamstring biceps
femoris (short head) & the knee
extensor vastus medialis
also the insertion point for adductor
longus, brevis and magnus
Greater and lesser trochanters
– greater trochanter – origin of
vastus lateralis (knee extensor)
& the insertion point for the hip
abductors: gluteus medius and
minimus and piriformis
– lesser trochanter – insertion for
iliopsoas (hip flexor)
The Patella
•
•
•
•
Large sesmoid bone
Forms within tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle group
Patellar ligament attaches to tibial tuberosity
This sesamoid bone forms within the tendon of the
quadriceps femoris.
The Tibia
•
•
•
•
•
Largest medial bone of leg
Tibial tuberosity
Anterior margin
Interosseous border
Medial malleolus
– Medial support for talocrural joint
The Tibia & Fibula
•
•
•
•
•
Tibia - largest medial
bone of leg
condyles of the tibia
form the knee joint with
the condyles of the
femur
Tibial tuberosity – site
of insertion for the
quadriceps femoris
Anterior margin or
crest – known as the
“shin bone”
Medial malleolus
– medial support for
talocrural joint of the
ankle
The Tarsus
• Seven tarsal bones
– calcaneus = heel
• weight of body transferred
through this bone!
– talus – forms the ankle joint
with the tibia and fibula
• ligaments from the two
malleolus processes reinforce
this joint
– navicular
– cuboid
– 3 cuneiform bones
•
weight passing through the calcaneus then passes along
to 5 metatarsal bones
-Longitudinal arch
-Transverse arch
Joints
Supportive Connective tissues: types
-cartilage & bone
1. Cartilage:
-cells = chondrocytes
-matrix = collagen fibers embedded in a gel-like
ground-substance
-collagen type II
-ground substance - water +
proteoglycans
-proteoglycans - protein + sugars
e.g. chondroitin sulfate
glucosamine
-functions in support, attachment, protection
-in developing child - model for future bone
(endochondral bone)
-avascular tissue - produces anti-angiogenic
chemicals (inhibits growth of blood vessels)
-therefore diffusion is the main mode of
transport
Proteoglycan
-3 types: 1) Hyaline - most common
- “glass”
- ends of bones, within joints (synovial, articular),
- end of nose, supports respiratory passages
2. Elastic - flexible cartilage
- external ears and parts of larynx
3. Fibrocartilage - very tough -> more collagen fibers
- shock absorber
e.g. intervertebral discs of the knee
Classification of Joints
Articulations
•
•
•
Wherever two bones interact
Function depends on structure
can classify according to:
A. structure – i.e. what they are made of
A. fibrous
B. cartilagenous
C. synovial
B. function - movement
– No movement = synarthrotic
– Slight movement = amphithrotic
– Extensive movement = diathrotic
Fibrous joints
•lack a synovial cavity
•articulating surfaces are held very closely by fibrous connective tissue
•three types
1. Sutures: composed a thin layer of fibrous connective tissue
-unites the bones of the skull
e.g. coronal suture
-interlocking edges of the suture gives them strength
-immovable joint
2. Syndesmoses: greater distance between articular edges
-more fibrous connective tissue
-connective tissue arranged as a sheet (interosseous membrane)
or bundle (ligament)
-slightly movable
e.g. tibiofibular ligament connecting the tibiofibular joint
e.g. interosseous membranes between the radius and ulna, tibia and fibula
3. Gomphoses: cone shaped peg fits into a socket
e.g articulations of the roots of the teeth with the jaw
-held by the periodontal ligament
-immovable
Cartilagenous joints
•lacks a synovial cavity
•allows little or no movement
•articulating bones are connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
1. Synchondroses: connecting material is hyaline cartilage
e.g. epiphyseal plate of a growing bone
-immovable
2. Symphyses: ends of bones are covered with hyaline cartilage but are connected
by a flat disc of fibrocartilage
-all symphyses occur at the midline of the body
e.g. pubic symphysis - connects two ends of the pubis bones
e.g. intervertebral joints between the bodies of 2 vertebrae
-slightly movable
Synovial joints
•presence of a synovial cavity between the articulating bone surfaces
freely movable
•lined with hyaline cartilage called articular cartilage
•filled with a fluid called synovial fluid
•surrounded by a fibrous capsule – inside is lined with a synovial membrane
•movement is along three possible axes:
Monaxial
Biaxial
Triaxial or Multiaxial
•6 subtypes:
1. planar/gliding
2. hinge
3. pivot
4. condyloid
5. saddle
6. ball and socket
Synovial Joints: General Anatomy
• Articular/Joint capsule encloses joint cavity
– continuous with periosteum of the bones of the
joint
– lined by a synovial membrane that produces
synovial fluid
• Synovial fluid = slippery fluid; feeds cartilages
• Articular cartilage = hyaline cartilage
covering the joint surfaces
• Articular discs and menisci
– found in the jaw, wrist, sternoclavicular and
knee joints
– absorbs shock, guides bone movements and
distributes forces
• Tendon attaches muscle to bone
• Ligament attaches bone to bone
9-83
Synovial joint subtypes:
1. Planar/Gliding joints : articulating surfaces are flat or slightly
curved
-permit side to side or back and forth gliding
motions
-non axial - no motions around an axis
-some books say they are limited monaxial joints
e.g. intercarpal joints of the wrist bones
e.g. intertarsal joints of the ankle bones
2. Hinge joints: convex surface of one bone fits into a concave
surface
-produces an angular, open and close movement
-movement is in one plane of motion = monaxial
3. Pivot joints: rounded or pointed end of one bone fits into a ring of
another
-also monaxial
-rotates around a longitudinal axis
e.g atlas-axis joint - first 2 vertebrae
4. Condyloid joints: or ellipsoid joints
-convex oval shaped projection of one bone fits into the
oval-shaped depression of another bone
-biaxial = two planes of motion
e.g. metacarpals and proximal phalanges
e.g. metatarsals and proximal phalanges
e.g. atlanto-occipital joint
5. Saddle joints: articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped
-modified condyloid joint
-biaxial – but more moveable than condyloid joints
e.g. thumb metacarpal and trapezium carpal bone
= trapeziometacarpal joint
6. Ball and socket joints: ball-like end of one bone fits into a
cuplike depression of another
-multiaxial - several planes of motion
e.g. hip joint, shoulder joint
Three categories based on range of
motion
• Synarthroses
– Immovable joints
• Amphiarthroses
– Slightly movable joints
• Diarthroses
– Freely movable joints
Synarthroses
• Bony edges may interlock
• Sutures
– Between skull bones
• Gomphosis
– Between teeth and jaw
• Synchondrosis
– Epiphyseal plate
• Synostosis
– Fused bones
Amphiarthroses
• Limited movements
• Syndesmosis
– Collagen fibers connect bones
• e.g. tibiofibular joint
• Symphysis
– Bones are separated by cartilage pad
• e.g. pubic symphysis
Diarthroses (synovial joints)
•
•
•
•
•
Wide range of movement
Bony surfaces covered by articular cartilage
Lubricated by synovial fluid
Enclosed with joint capsule
Accessory structures
–
–
–
–
–
–
Menisci
Fat pads
Ligaments
Tendons
Bursae
Tendon sheaths
Joint Description
• for the diathrotic joints – there are a number
of axes along which movement is permitted
– Monaxial
– Biaxial
– Triaxial
Joints: Range of Motion
• Degrees through which a joint can move
• Determined by
– structure of the articular surfaces
– strength and tautness of ligaments, tendons and
capsule
• stretching of ligaments increases range of motion
• double-jointed people have long or slack ligaments
– action of the muscles and tendons
• nervous system monitors joint position and muscle tone
9-91
Rotational Movements
• Movement on
longitudinal axis
– rotation of trunk,
thigh, head or arm
• Medial rotation turns
the bone inwards
• Lateral rotation turns
the bone outwards
9-93
Rotational Movements
• Medial and lateral
rotation of the hand –
called pronation &
supination
• in the foot we call it
eversion and
inversion
Special movement terms
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pronation/Supination
Eversion/Inversion
Dorsiflexion/Plantar flexion
Lateral flexion
Opposition
Protraction/retraction
Elevation/depression
Special movement terms
Special movement terms
Movements of Head and Trunk
• Flexion, hyperextension and lateral flexion of vertebral
9-97
column
Special movement terms
Movements of Mandible
• Lateral excursion = sideways movement
• Medial excursion = movement back to the midline
– side-to-side grinding during chewing
9-98
• Protraction – retraction of mandible
Special movement terms
Movement of Hand and Digits
• Radial and ulnar
flexion
• Abduction of fingers
and thumb
• Opposition is
movement of the
thumb to approach or
touch the fingertips
• Reposition is
movement back to the
anatomical position
9-99
Special movement terms
Movements of the Foot
• Dorsiflexion is raising of the toes as when you swing the foot
forward to take a step (heel strike)
• Plantarflexion is extension of the foot so that the toes point
downward as in standing on tiptoe
• Inversion is a movement in which the soles are turned medially
• Eversion is a turning of the soles to face laterally
Describing dynamic motion of diathrotic joints
• Linear motion/Gliding
– Back and forth or side to side
• Angular motion
– Angle between shaft and surface changes
– flexion, extension, lateral extension, hyperextension
abduction, adduction and circumduction
• Rotation
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–
–
–
Spinning of shaft on longitudinal axis
pivot and ball and socket joints
rotation inward - medial rotation
rotation outward - lateral rotation
Representative Articulations
The Temporomandibular Joint
•
•
•
•
Mandibular fossa of temporal bone
Condylar processes of mandible
Thick articular disc
Supporting structures
–
–
–
–
Dense capsule
Temporomandibular ligament
Stylomandibular ligament
Sphenomandibular ligament
• Loose hinge joint
Figure 8.7b The TMJ
Intervertebral Articulations
• Articular processes of
adjacent vertebrae
• Symphyseal joints at
bodies
• Ligaments bind
vertebrae
• Permits flexion,
extension, lateral
flexion, rotation
•Intervertebral discs separate
-outer fibrous ring of fibrocartilage
called the annulus fibrosis
-inner, soft, pulpy elastic material
called the nucleus pulposus
Figure 8.9b Damage to the
Intervertebral Discs
The Sternoclavicular Joint
• Gliding joint
• Sternal end of clavicle and
manubruim of sternum
•Articular disc
•Supports include
-Anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligaments
-Intercalvicular ligaments
-Costoclavicular ligaments
The Shoulder Joint
• Glenohumoral joint
– Glenoid fossa and head
of humerus
• Loose shallow joint
• Greatest range of
motion
Strength and stability are
sacrificed
• Supported by
ligaments and muscles
• Many bursae
The Elbow Joint
• Hinge joint
• Flexion and extension
• Includes humeroulnar joint and humeroradial
joint
• Supported by
– Radial and ulnar collateral ligaments
– Annular ligaments
The Joints of the Wrist
• Three joints
– Distal radioulnar joint
• Pivot diarthrosis
• Pronation / suppination
– Radiocarpal joint
•
•
•
•
Ellipsoidal articulation
Flexion/extension
Adduction/ abduction
circumduction
– Intercarpal joints
• Gliding joints
Joints of the Hand
• Intercarpal joints
– Gliding
• Carpometacarpal joint of thumb
– Saddle
• Carpometacarpal joints
– Gliding
• Metacarpophalangeal joints
– Ellipsoidal
• Interphalangeal joints
– Hinge
The Hip Joint
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•
•
•
•
•
Ball and socket diarthrosis
Acetabulum of os coxae and head of femur
Flexion / extension
Adduction / abduction
Circumduction
Rotation
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•
•
•
•
Iliofemoral ligament
Pubofemoral ligament
Ischiofemoral ligament
Transverse acetabular ligaments
Ligament of femoral head
The Knee Joint
• Complex hinge joint
• Resembles three separate joints
– Medial condyles of femur and tibia
– Lateral condyles of femur and tibia
– Patella and patellar surface of femur
• Flexion / extension
• Limited rotation
• Support is not a single unified capsule
– Not a single fluid cavity
•
•
•
•
Fibrocartilage pads
Medial and lateral menisci
Fat pads
Seven major ligaments bind knee joint
–
–
–
–
Popliteals
Patellar
Anterior and posterior cruciates
Tibial and fibular collaterals
Figure 8.17d The Knee Joint,
Part II
The Joints of the Ankle and Foot
• Hinge joint
• Inferior surface of tibia, lateral malleolus of fibula, trochlea of talus
– Primary joint is tibiotalar
• Stabilizing ligaments
• Dorsiflexion / plantar flexion
• Intertarsal joints
– Gliding
• Tarsometatarsal joints
– Gliding
• Metatarsophalangeal
– Gliding
• Interphanageal
– Hinge