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◦ Any form of communication a
business or organization uses to
inform, persuade, or remind.
Businesses must continually promote their
organizations, products, and policies to gain
customer acceptance; you will need to learn
successful promotional strategies.
These strategies make up the
Promotional Mix
The promotional mix is a combination of the
different types of promotion.
Four basic types of promotion:
2.Public Relations/Publicity
3.Personal Sales
4.Sales Promotion
Advertising is any paid form of non-personal
promotion of ideas, goods, or services.
Advertising can be found anywhere from
magazines, TV, internet, or anything that is
ONE-WAY communication.
Public relations - The method or activities of
establishing and promoting a favorable
relationship with the public.
Publicity - Part of public relations and involves
placing newsworthy information about a
business, product, or policy in the media.
It’s mostly free.
Personal sales are when
individuals make contact with
potential buyers face-to-face
to promote their business,
products, or policies.
Sales promotion
represents all marketing
activities other than the
three already mentioned,
◦ Contests
◦ Fashion shows
◦ Coupons
Used to stimulate
consumer purchase
Factors affecting the promotional mix:
◦ Technology
◦ Economy
◦ Market
◦ Distribution
Match the examples below to one of the 4
strategies in the promotional mix: (advertising,
publicity, personal sales, sales promotion)
1. TV Commercial
5. contest
2. Insurance sales
6. Fashion Show
3. News release
7. Magazine Ad
4. Coupon
7. Home Tupperware
Advertising (one-way paid communication)
Personal sales
Sales Promotion
Sales Promotion
Sales Promotion
Personal Sales
Allows large number of people to
see the advertised message
Can’t focus on individual needs
Can be controlled
Can be too expensive for many
Can have repeat viewers
Can be inefficient (short coverage
of billboards & magazines)
Can pre-sale products before
customers go shopping
save a business money by
extending it’s advertising budget
May not be accurate or presented
in the way or time that will reach
the right audience
Can increase a business’ profit and Can be negative or harmful to the
Lack of control of content
Personalized to individual
Most expensive form/per sale
Largest form of promotion
Has slower distribution/coverage
compared to advertising
Easier for personal sales to focus
on target market and complete the
Variety of activities
Short term incentives
Includes many different marketing
activities to stimulate consumer
interest including business to
business promotions
Can be controlled
Trade Promotions –sales promotion activities
are designed to gain manufacturers’,
wholesalers’, and retailers’ support for a
product. More money is actually spent on
promoting to businesses than to consumers.
 Major trade promotions include:
 Slotting –
 Buying Allowances –
 Trade shows & conventions -
◦ Slotting – paid by the manufacturer to the
retailer for placing their new products on
the shelves, store advertising, and display
◦ Buying Allowances – a price discount given
by manufactures to retailers to encourage
them to buy more.
◦ Trade Shows & Conventions – designed to
reach wholesalers and retailers to display
new products and/or increase sale of
previous products.
Premiums – low cost items given to customers
Incentives – generally products earned through
Product Samples –
contest, sweepstakes, and rebates
in store or by mail
Product tie-in’s or co-operative advertising-
cost sharing arrangement whereby both a supplier
and advertiser pay for advertising & promo
Product Placement – product recognition
Visual Merchandising & Display– coordination
Loyalty Programs –
developed by featuring products in special
events, TV, movies, etc.
of all physical elements to project the right image
to its consumers. Display refers to the artistic
and visual aspects used to present a product.
frequent buyer rewards
Coupons - a ticket or document that can be
exchanged for a financial discount or rebate
when purchasing a product
Point of Purchase - may be a physical
location, such as a store, booth, or other
retail outlet; or it may consist of an electronic
sales environment such as a telephone-based
ordering service or a website.
 How
can using multiple
strategies together reinforce
each other and the product in
a promotional mix?